- Main article: The Looming Tower
This article has been assessed as havingUnknown importance.
Good scope? Timeline? wikified? red links < 10? all red links fixed? referenced? Illustrated? Googled and added info? Checked 9/11 records archives? Checked Wikinews? Checked Wikisource?
|This article needs better categories. Please help out by fixing categories to it so that it can be listed with similar articles.|
- ; ' * W ' *T*T*» i *•>» *- T Jà^J* 18OO 00049 P r a i s e for T H E L O O M I N G TOWER "What a riveting tale Lawrence Wright fashions in this marvelous book. The Looming Tower is not just a detailed, heart-stopping account of the events leading up to 9/11, written with style and verve. [It's] a thoughtful examination of the world that produced the men who brought us 9/11, and of their progeny who bedevil us today . . . Wright has unearthed an astonishing amount of detail about Osama bin Laden, Ayman al-Zawahiri. .. and all the rest of them. They come alive . . . The portrait of John O'Neill, the driven, demon-ridden F.B.I, agent who worked so frantically to stop Osama bin Laden, only to perish in the attack on the World Trade Center, is worth the price of the book alone. The Looming-Tower is, a thriller. And it's a tragedy, too." —Dexter Filkins, Cover, The New York Times Book Review "A towering achievement. One of the best and more important books of recent years. Lawrence Wright has dug deep into and written well a story every American should know. A masterful combination of reporting and writing." —Dan Rather "A searing view of the tragic events of September 11, 2001. a view that is at once wrenchingly intimate and boldly sweeping in its historical perspective . . . A narrative history that possesses all the immediacy and emotional power of a novel, an account that indelibly illustrates how the political and the personal, the public and the private were often inextricably intertwined." —Michiko Kakutani, The New York Times "Lawrence Wright's integrity and diligence as a reporter shine through every page of this riveting narrative." —Robert A. Caro CURRENT AFFAIRS/ ISBN 0-375-4K86-X HISTORY 5 2 7 95 780375"4K862 U.S.A. $27.95 CANADA $36.95 A SWEEPING NARRATIVE HISTORY of the events leading to 9/11, a groundbreaking look at the people and ideas, the terrorist plans and the Western intelligence failures that culminated in the assault on America. Lawrence Wright's remarkable book is based on five years of research and hundreds of interviews that he conducted in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sudan, England, France, Germany, Spain, and the United States. The Looming Tower achieves an unprecedented level of intimacy and insight by telling the story through the interweaving lives of four men: the two leaders of al-Qaeda, Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri; the FBI's counterterrorism chief, John O'Neill; and the former head of Saudi intelligence, Prince Turki al-Faisal. As these lives unfold, we see revealed: the crosscurrents of modern Islam that helped to radicalize Zawahiri and bin Laden . . . the birth of al-Qaeda and its unsteady development into an organization capable of the American embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania and the attack on the USS Cole . . . O'Neill's heroic efforts to track al-Qaeda before 9/11, and his tragic death in the World Trade towers . . . Prince Turki's transformation from bin Laden's ally to his enemy . . . the failures of the FBI, CIA, and NSA to share intelligence that might have prevented the 9/11 attacks. The Looming Tower broadens and deepens our knowledge of these signal events by taking us behind the scenes. Here is Sayyid Qutb, founder of the modern Islamist movement, lonely and despairing as he meets Western culture up close in 1940s America; the privileged childhoods of bin Laden and Zawahiri; family life in the al-Qaeda compounds of Sudan and Afghanistan; O'Neill's highwire act in balancing his all-consuming career with his equally entangling personal life—he was living with three women, each of them unaware of the others' existence—and the nitty-gritty of turf battles among U.S. intelligence agencies. Brilliantly conceived and written, The Looming Tower draws all elements of the story into a galvanizing narrative that adds immeasurably to our understanding of how we arrived at September i i , 2001. The richness of its new information, and the depth of its perceptions, can help us deal more wisely and effectively with the continuing terrorist threat. LAWRENCE WRIGHT graduated from Tulane University and spent two years teaching at the American University in Cairo, Egypt. He is a staff writer for The New Yorker and a fellow at the Center on Law and Security at New York University School of Law. The author of five works of nonfiction— City Children, Country Summer; In the New World; Saints and Sinners; Remembering Satan; and Twins— he has also written a novel, God's Favorite, and was cowriter of the movie The Siege. He and his wife are longtime residents of Austin, Texas. Lawrence Wright's Remembering Satan and Saints and Sinners are available in Vintage paperback. With 16 pages of photographs and 1 map in text jacket photograph: Osama bin Laden and His Sixteen al-Qaeda Members, © Reuters/Corbis Jacket design by Chip Kidd > ~< Alfred A. Knopf, Publisher, New York www.aaknopf.com 8/2006 THE LOOMING TOWER ALSO BY LAWRENCE WRIGHT God's Favorite Twins Remembering Satan Saints and Sinners In the New World City Children, Country Summer THE LOOMING TOWER Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11 Lawrence Wright Alfred A. Knopf ^ ^ New York 2006 THIS IS A B O R Z O I B O OK P U B L I S H E D BY A L F R E D A. K N O PF Copyright © 2006 by Lawrence Wright All rights reserved. Published in the United States by Alfred A. Knopf, a division of Random House, Inc., New York, and in Canada by Random House of Canada, Limited, Toronto. www.aaknopf.com Grateful acknowledgment is made to Constable & Robinson Ltd. and Michal Snunit for permission to reprint an excerpt from The Soul Bird by Michal Snunit. Reprinted by permission. Knopf, Borzoi Books, and the colophon are registered trademarks of Random House, Inc. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Wright, Lawrence, [date] The looming tower : Al-Qaeda and the road to 9/11 / by Lawrence Wright. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-375-41486-x 1. September 11 Terrorist Attacks, 2001. 2. Qaida (Organization) 3. Terrorism—Government policy—United States. 4. Intelligence service—United States. I. Title. HV6432.7.W75 2005 973.931—dc22 2006041032 Manufactured in the United States of America Published August 8, 2006 Reprinted Three Times Fifth Printing, August 2006 This is for my family, Roberta, Caroline, Gordon & Karen CONTENTS Prologue i. The Martyr 2. The Sporting Club 3. The Founder 4. Change 5. The Miracles 6. The Base 7. Return of the Hero 8. Paradise 9. The Silicon Valley 10. Paradise Lost 11. The Prince of Darkness 12. The Boy Spies 13. Hijira 14. Going Operational 15. Bread and Water 3 7 32 60 84 99 121 145 163 176 187 202 213 224 237 245 i6.
18. 19. 20. "Now It Begins" The New Millennium Boom The Big Wedding Revelations Principal Characters Notes Bibliography Author Interviews Acknowledgments and Notes on Sources Index 262 287 301 333 362 375 385 429 439 447 455 X f%,. Bh ac*Sea Ar Si % V5 TURKEY jâEORG^\ ARMENIA O % r ^ ^ TURKME ISTAN <Ù
- e* LEBANON^, SYRIA-- / <§ ^ ,
I S R A E L ^ ^ a m ^ c ^ *) Tel Aviv #0^ Amman ^ AZERBAIJAN Cairo® EGYPT Y?
- 2^ ? c
V ®B%hdad \ IRA* Tehran IRAN KUWAIT Medina BAHRAIN-^ Riyadh^ QATAR Q ^ Port Sudanw y Jeddah Mecca SAUDI ARABIA U.A.E. Gul SUDAN «^Khartoum OMAN /ERITREA ETHIOPIA YEMEN !>JfBOUTI Gulf of Aden Aden . . . - • • • ' AZAKHSTAN KYRGYZSTAN EKISTAN CHINA TAJIKISTAN Kabulr PANJSHlk VALLEY tfTUSH KhostP HANISTA|J lahar PAKISTAN Carachi \ v~-. Arabian Sea .00 200 Miles 200 Kilometers Peshawar Islamabad r % New Delhi <%
Sayyid Qutb, the educator and writer whose book Milestones ignited the radical Islamist movement, is shown here displaying one of his books (probably Social Justice in Islam) to the president of Colorado State College of Education, Dr. William Ross. Greeley, Colorado, from the air in the 1940s. "The small city of Greeley, in which I am staying, is so beautiful that one may easily imagine that he is in paradise," Qutb wrote. But he also saw the darker side of America. Qutb on trial, circa 1965. He was hanged in 1966. "Thank God," he said when his death sentence was pronounced. "I performed jihad for fifteen years until I earned this martyrdom." /*£££%. Zawahiri as a schoolboy, right, and as a medical student at Cairo University, below Ayman al-Zawahiri grew up in Maadi, a middle-class suburb of Cairo. A solitary child, his classmates regarded him as a genius. He is shown in his childhood in a Cairo park. Opposite bottom: Ayman al-Zawahiri was defendant number 113 of the 302 who were charged with aiding or planning the October 1981 assassination of Anwar al-Sadat. He became spokesperson for the defendants because of his superior English. He is shown here delivering his lecture to the world press in December 1982. Many blame the torture of prisoners in the Egyptian prisons for the savagery of the Islamist movement. "They kicked us, they beat us, they whipped us with electric cables! They shocked us with electricity! And they used the wild dogs!" The defendants on trial Left: Sheikh Omar Abdul Rahman, "the blind sheikh," was one of the defendants. He was the emir of the Islamic Group at the time. Left: Mohammed bin Laden came to Saudi Arabia in 1931 as a penniless Yemeni laborer and rose to become the king's favorite contractor and the man who built much of the infrastructure of the modern Kingdom. He gestures here to Prince Talal bin Abdul Aziz during a tour of the renovation of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, circa 1950. Right: Mohammed bin Laden and King Faisal. During the construction of the road to Taif, King Faisal would often come to examine the progress and ask about cost overruns. When the road was completed, the Kingdom was finally united and Mohammed bin Laden became a national hero.
Left: The renovation of the Grand Mosque took twenty years. During the hajj it can accommodate a million worshippers at once. Jamal Khalifa, bin Laden's college friend and later his brother-in-law, moved into bin Laden's house with his first wife. Their friendship broke apart over the issue of creating an all-Arab legion in Afghanistan, which was the predecessor of al-Qaeda. Osama moved to this house in Jeddah with his mother after Mohammed bin Laden divorced her. Osama bin Laden's second house in Jeddah, a four-unit apartment building, which he acquired after he became a polygamist Opposite, bottom: Juhayman al-Oteibi, the leader of the attack on the mosque in 1979, a turning point in the history of Saudi Arabia. The demands of the insurgents foreshadowed bin Laden's agenda. When Oteibi begged for forgiveness after his capture, Prince Turki, head of Saudi intelligence, told him, "Ask forgiveness of God!" Abdullah Azzam, who issued a fatwa in 1984 that called upon Muslims everywhere to "join the caravan" of the Afghan jihad. He and bin Laden set up the Services Bureau in Peshawar to facilitate the movement of Arabs into the war. Bin Laden in a cave in Jalalabad in 1988, at about the time that he began al-Qaeda Below: Azzam in the Panjshir Valley in 1988, where he traveled to meet with Ahmed Shah Massoud, the greatest of the Afghan commanders in the war against the Soviet invasion. Massoud sits next to Azzam with his arm around Azzam's son Ibrahim. Shortly after this visit Azzam and two of his sons, including Ibrahim, were assassinated in a bombing that has never been solved. General Hamid Gui, who ran the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence during the Afghan jihad. The United States and Saudi Arabia tunneled hundreds of millions of dollars through the ISI, which was largely responsible for creating the Taliban when the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan. Right: Prince Turki al-Faisal, head of Saudi intelligence, held the file on Afghanistan and worked with bin Laden. Later he negotiated with Mullah Mohammed Omar, the Taliban leader, but came away emptyhanded. Prince Turki after the Soviet occupation, negotiating among the warring mujahideen. He is on the far left, next to Burhanuddin Rabbani, the head of Ahmed Shah Massoud's political party. Pakistani prime minister Nawaz Sherif sits on the right. The World Trade Center as seen from New Jersey/where the followers of Sheikh Omar Abdul Rahman plotted to bring it down Ramzi Yousef was the mastermind of the first World Trade Center bombing. It was his dark imagination that gave shape to al-Qaeda's ambitious agenda. Hasan al-Turabi, the loquacious and provocative ideologue who organized the Islamist coup in Sudan and courted bin Laden to invest in the country. "Bin Laden hated Turabi," a friend confided. "He thought he was a Machiavelli." Bin Laden came to Sudan a wealthy man; he left with little more than his wardrobe. While bin Laden was in Sudan, the king of Saudi Arabia revoked bin Laden's citizenship and sent an emissary to collect his passport. Bin Laden threw it at the man. "Take it, if having it dictates anything on my behalf!" In the mornings, bin Laden walked to the mosque, followed by acolytes, and would linger to study with holy men, often breakfasting with them before going to his office. Osama bin Laden returned to Afghanistan in 1996. He habitually carried the Kalikov AK-74 that had been awarded to him in the jihad against the Soviets. Opposite, top: Zawahiri and bin Laden holding a press conference in Afghanistan in May 1998. In Afghanistan, the destinies of bin Laden and Zawahiri became irrevocably intertwined, and eventually their terrorist organizations, al-Qaeda and al-Jihad, merged into one. Taliban fighters headed to the front to fight against the Northern Alliance in 2001. The Taliban arose out of the chaos of mujahideen rule in 1994 and swiftly moved to consolidate their control of Afghanistan. At first, bin Laden and his followers had no idea who they were— there were rumors that they were communists. The Dar-ul-Aman Palace, Kabul. The palace was caught between the lines during the civil war that followed the Soviet withdrawal. After twenty-five years of continuous warfare, much of Afghanistan was left in ruins. Above: The ruins of the American Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya, which was bombed on August 7,1998— al-Qaeda's first documented terrorist strike. The attack killed 213 people and injured thousands. More than 150 people were blinded by flying glass. Right: The American Embassy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, was bombed nine minutes later, killing 11 and wounding 85. Left: The Clinton administration responded by destroying several al-Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan and the al-Shifa pharmaceutical plant in Khartoum, pictured here. A night watchman was killed in the plant, which later proved to have nothing to do with producing chemical or biological weapons. The USS Cole after a suicide attack by two al-Qaeda operatives in a fishing skiff in October 2000. The attack nearly sank one of the most invulnerable ships in the U.S. Navy. Seventeen sailors died. "The destroyer represented the capital of the West," said bin Laden, "and the small boat represented Mohammed." Michael Scheuer, who created Alec Station, the CIA's virtual Osama bin Laden station. He and the FBI's John O'Neill were bitter rivals. Richard Clarke, the counterterrorism czar in the White House, proposed that O'Neill succeed him in his job—an offer that may have led to his downfall. Valerie James saw John O'Neill in a bar in Chicago in 1991 and bought him a drink because "he had the most compelling eyes." O'Neill was married at the time, a fact he failed to reveal to the many women he courted. While he was dating Valerie in Chicago, O'Neill asked for an "exclusive relationship" with Mary Lynn Stevens in Washington, D.C. In Washington, O'Neill also became involved with Anna DiBattista. "That guy is never going to marry you," her priest warned her. John O'Neill said good-bye to Daniel Coleman and his FBI teammates at a farewell coffee on the occasion of his retirement from the bureau on August 22, 2001. The next day he started work at the World Trade Center. Above: After gaining the names of the hijackers from al-Qaeda suspects in Yemen, Ali Soufan (left, with Special Agent George Crouch) traveled to Afghanistan. Here he stands in the ruins of what was bin Laden's hideout in Kabul. O'Neill's funeral was the catastrophe of coincidence that he had always dreaded. Here his mother, Dorothy, and his wife, Christine, leave St. Nicholas of Tolentine Church in Atlantic City. They were among a thousand mourners. The ruins of the World Trade Center burned for a hundred days. John O'Neill's body was found ten days after the 9/11 attack. THE LOOMING TOWER
- Main article: The Looming Tower full text:Prologue
- Main article: The Looming Tower full text:Chapter 3
The Sporting ClubEdit
- Main article: The Looming Tower:Chapter 2
- Main article: The Looming Tower:Chapter 3
- Main article: The Looming Tower:Chapter 4
- Main article: The Looming Tower:Chapter 5
- Main article: The Looming Tower:Chapter 6
Return of the HeroEdit
- Main article: The Looming Tower:Chapter 7
- Main article: The Looming Tower:Chapter 8
9. The Silicon ValleyEdit
176 "awesome symbolic towers": Osama bin Laden interview with Tayser Alouni, al-Jazeera, October 2001, translated by CNN. 408 Notes Little Egypt: Kepel, Jihad, 301. 177 issued a fatwa: interview with Tom Corrigan. "descendants of apes": Kohlmann, Al-Qaida's Jihad in Europe, 26. "cut the transportation": ibid, 185. bin Laden was financially backing: interview with Tom Corrigan. World Trade Center bombing: interviews with Frank Pellegrino, David Kelley, Lewis Schiliro, James Kallstrom, Joe Cantemessa, Richard A. Clarke, Thomas Pickard, Pascual "Pat" D'Amuro, Mark Rossini, Mary Galligan, and Tom Corrigan. 178 sodium cyanide: Reeve, The New Jackals, 43. dirty bomb: ibid., 147. tourists felt: ibid., 12. hospital casualties: ibid., 15. 179 Zawahiri appeared on the speaker circuit: There is considerable dispute about the exact date of Zawahiri's trip to the United States, or whether there was more than one. Ali Mohammed, the FBI's main source on this matter, told investigators that Zawahiri traveled to Brooklyn in 1988 in the company of Abu Khaled al-Masri, which is an alias for Mohammed Shawki Islambouli, the brother of the assassin of Anwar al-Sadat, and who was on the shura council of al-Jihad. As for the California trip, Mohammed says it took place in 1993 before the World Trade Center bombing, which occurred on February 26. Zawahiri's host in California, Dr. Ali Zaki, however, says he met Zawahiri once, in 1989 or 1990. There is also court testimony in Egypt by Khaled Abu al- Dahab, another member of al-Jihad who lived in California. "Ayman al- Zawahiri came to America to collect donations," Abu al-Dahab told a court in Cairo in 1999. Abu al-Dahab gave the date of Zawahiri's trip as late 1994 or 1995. For this narrative, I have chosen to accept the FBI version of the travel dates. According to Dan Coleman, Zawahiri paid a visit to the mujahideen's Services Bureau branch office in Brooklyn in 1988. The office on Atlantic Avenue was run by one of Zawahiri's men in al-Jihad, Mustafa Shalabi. Two years later, Shalabi got into a dispute with Zawahiri's old rival, Sheikh Omar Abdul Rahman, over money. The blind sheikh wanted to use the funds the center raised to support the international jihad. Shalabi wanted the money to go into the Islamist rebellion against Egypt. He refused to relinquish control of the account. In March 1991 someone entered Shalabi's apartment in Brooklyn, beat him, strangled him, and stabbed him more than thirty times—a murder that has never been solved. Bern, Switzerland . . . real name: interview with Jack Cloonan. martial artist: interview with Mark Rossini. 180 the government rightly suspected: Benjamin and Simon, The Age of Sacred Terror, 123. already a member: plea, U.S. v. Ali Mohamed. the Cairo station: interview with Jack Cloonan. probably a plant: interview with Michael Scheuer. sponsored by the agency: Paul Quinn-Judge and Charles M. Sennott, "Figure Cited in Terrorism Case Said to Enter US with CIA Help," Boston Globe, February 3,1995. 409 Notes 180 the transatlantic flight: Peter Waldman, Gerald F. Seib, Jerry Markon, and Christopher Cooper, "The Infiltrator: Ali Mohamed Served in the U.S. Army—and bin Laden's Circle," Wall Street Journal, November 26, 2001; Miller, Stone, and Mitchell, The Cell, 141. 181 pursuing a doctorate: Bergen, Holy War, 129. Kinko's: interview with Jack Cloonan. members of al-Jihad: interview with Tom Corrigan. "kill Russians": Benjamin Weiser and James Risen, "The Masking of a Militant: A Special Report; a Soldier's Shadowy Trail in U.S. and in the Mideast," New York Times, December 1,1998. kidnappings, assassinations, and hijacking: "The Story of the Arab Afghans from the Time of Their Arrival in Afghanistan Until Their Departure with the Taliban," part 5, Al-Sharq al-Awsat, December 12, 2004. triggering device: interview with Jack Cloonan. "buy rugs": interview with Jack Cloonan. 182 name of Osama bin Laden: interview with Jack Cloonan. Bin Laden's name and his organization were already beginning to be known even in the media. There is an Agence France Presse article, "Jordanian Militants Train in Afghanistan to Confront Regime," dated May 30, 1993, in which a "27-yearold militant" admits that he has been "trained by Al-Ka'ida, a secret organization in Afghanistan that is financed by a wealthy Saudi businessman who owns a construction firm in Jeddah, Ossama ibn Laden." "James Bond": interview with Harlen L. Bell. they had been lost: interview with Daniel Coleman. German military attaché: confessions of Ahmed Ibrahim al-Sayed al-Najjar, "Returnees from Albania" case, September 1998. 183 two thousand dollars: interview with Jack Cloonan. 184 Naguib Mahfouz: interview with Naguib Mahfouz. 185 "Vanguards of Conquest": al-Zawahiri, "Knights Under the Prophet's Banner," part 6. There is an ongoing dispute about whether Zawahiri was in charge of the Vanguards. There were several articles in the press that described the Vanguards as a dissident, break-away group from al-Jihad, which was led by Ahmed Agazzi and Yasser el-Sirri. However, el-Sirri was evasive when I queried him on this. "In 1993 and 1994, many did not agree with what happened in Egypt," he said. "But Zawahiri had the money. This group did not." Mamdouh Ismail, an Islamist lawyer in Cairo, told me that "Vanguards" was a media name; in fact, the arrested persons were largely members of al-Jihad—a view echoed by Hisham Kassem, a human rights advocate and publisher in Cairo, and Montassir al-Zayyat. "There is nothing called 'Vanguards of Conquest,' " Zayyat asserts. judicial standards: According to Hisham Kassem, a Cairo publisher and human rights worker, "Vanguards was accused of trying to overthrow the government. Part of the evidence was a baseball bat and an air rifle. The ones you think are dangerous, you hang; the rest you give life sentences. It was all staged." "only solution": Andrew Higgins and Christopher Cooper, "Cloak and Dagger: A CIA-Backed Team Used Brutal Means to Crack Terror Cell," Wall Street Journal, November 20, 2001. 410 Notes backs of camels: testimony of Jamal al-Fadl, U.S. v. Usama bin Laden, et al. "The Minister escaped": "Al-Sharq al-Awsat Publishes Extracts from al-Jihad Leader al-Zawahiri's New Book," by FBIS, Al-Sharq al-Awsat, December 2, 2001. 186 been to Iran: "Confessions from Last Leader of al-Jihad Organization," Rose el-Youssef, February 2,1997. Translated by FBIS. Zawahiri distributed cassettes: Salah, Waqaï Sanawat al-Jihad. "Terrorism is the enemy": "Egyptian Mourners Condemn Terrorists," AP, November 27,1993. "The unintended death": Ayman al-Zawahiri, "Al-Sharq al-Awsat Publishes Extracts from al-Jihad Leader al-Zawahiri's New Book," Al-Sharq al-Awsat, December 2, 2001. Translated by FBIS. "This meant": ibid.
10. Paradise LostEdit
188 350,000 lives: Huband, Warriors of the Prophet, 36. 250 men: Anonymous, Through Our Enemies' Eyes, 136. a handful: interview with Hassabulla Omer. The testimony of L'Houssaine Kherchtou mentions only a couple of al-Qaeda fighters, who were sent to Somalia because they were dark-skinned and could pass as natives. U.S. v. Usama bin Laden et al. The extent of al-Qaeda's involvement in Somalia remains unresolved. Mary Deborah Doran, who concentrated on the Somali question for the FBI, wrote me: "I think there's no doubt AQ played a role in Somalia, and I believe that AQ had a role in the killing of our Rangers in October 1993—that even if they weren't the ones to pull the trigger (something we won't know until we find the people who did pull the triggers or were there when they were pulled), I believe it wouldn't have happened without them." "Somalis treated us": al-Hammadi, "The Inside Story of al-Qa'ida," part 2, March 24, 2005. 189 "Based on the reports": Taysir Aluni interview with Osama bin Laden, al- Jazeera, October 2001. Ali Mohammed, taught: interview with Jack Cloonan. Qari el-Said: interview with Abdullah Anas. 190 two months of 1994: Wiktorowicz, "The New Global Threat." "Thank God": interview with Abdullah Anas. "better image": Evan Kohlmann, "The Legacy of the Arab-Afghans: A Case Study" (international politics honors thesis, Georgetown University, 2001). "too flexible": interview with Abdullah Anas. More than a hundred thousand: Kepel, Jihad, 254. chemical agents . . . smuggling: testimony of Jamal al-Fadl, U.S. v. Usama bin Laden, et al. 191 Jamal al-Fadl: interviews with Jack Cloonan and Mark Rossini. The general wanted $1.5 million: testimony of Jamal al-Fadl, U.S. v. Usama bin Laden, et al. Mohammed Loay Baizid (Abu Rida al-Suri), who allegedly purchased the "uranium" for bin Laden, claims that this entire episode never happened. His statement is supported by Hassabulla Omer, who was working in Sudanese intelligence at the time. Both men say there were similar 411 Notes rumors and scams operating in Khartoum that might have been the basis for Fadl's testimony. 191 red mercury: personal correspondence with Roy Schwitters. nuclear warheads: Anonymous, Through Our Enemies' Eyes, 125. 192 Ansar al-Sunnah Mosque: Details about the assassination attempt come from Mohammed Ibrahim Naqd, "The First Attempt to Assassinate bin Laden Was Attempted by a Libyan Who Was Trained in Lebanon," Al-Hayat, November 18, 2001; and Ibrahim Hassan Ardi, "Al-Watan Places the Period the Head of al-Qaeda Spent in Sudan," Al-Watan, October 25, 2001; "Ossama bin-Ladin: Muslims Who Live in Europe Are Kafirs," Rose al-Yousef, December 9,1996; al- Hammadi, "The Inside Story of al-Qa'ida," part 3, March 21, 2005; and from interviews with Issam al-Turabi, Sadiq el-Mahdi, Hassabulla Omer, and Khaled Yusuf. A number of sources state that there were actually two assassination attempts on bin Laden, sometimes given as being several weeks apart, but those reports stem from bin Laden himself, who counts the shooting at the mosque the night before as an attempt on his life. suffered from asthma: interview with Jamal Khalifa. Some of the details about bin Laden's son Abdullah come from al-Hammadi, "The Inside Story of al-Qa'ida," part 3, March 21, 2005. "At that moment": "Ossama bin-Ladin: Muslims Who Live in Europe Are Kafirs," Rose al-Yousef, December 9,1996. 193 "They had targeted": ibid. "regimes in our Arabic region": Wright, "The Man Behind bin Laden." Egyptian intelligence: interview with Jamal Khashoggi. CIA believed: interview with Michael Scheuer. kept their university jobs: interview with anonymous Sudanese source. 194 "We have not been": interview with Jamal Khalifa. It was Egypt: ibid. 195 Fahd personally decided: interview with Saeed Badeeb. "Take it,": "Walidee Ramama al-Aqsa Bilkhasara" [My Father Renovated al- Aqsa Mosque, with a Loss], Al-Umma al-Islamiyya, October 18,1991. seeking asylum: Daniel McGrory, "The Day When Osama bin Laden Applied for Asylum—in Britain," Times, September 29,2005. about $7 million: interview with bin Laden family spokesperson. 196 depended on the monthly stipend: interview with Jamal Khalifa. spreading money around: interview with Hassabulla Omer. rock-crushing machines: Benjamin Weiser, "Ex-Aide Tells of Plot to Kill bin Laden," New York Times, February 21, 2001. "Business is very bad": testimony of Jamal al-Fadl, U.S. v. Usama bin Laden, et al. Interview with Mohammed Loay Baizid. 197 "lost all my money": testimony of L'Houssaine Kherchtou, U.S. v. Usama bin Laden, et al. a billionaire: testimony of Jamal al-Fadl, U.S. v. Usama bin Laden, et al. nearly $1 million: ibid. The actual amounts were $795,200.49 from the Witness Protection Program and $151,047.02 from the FBI. That does not include money that may have been given to Fadl by the CIA, who were the first to interview him. New Jersey Lottery: interview with Jack Cloonan. 4 1 2
198 two cameras: ibid. "Bin Laden looked": plea, U.S. v. Ali Mohamed. 199 "I am tired": Hasin al-Banyan, "The Oldest Arab Afghan Talks to 'Al-Sharq al-Awsat' About His Career That Finally Landed Him in Prison in Saudi Arabia," trans. FBIS, Al-Sharq al-Azvsat, November 25, 2001. Medani al-Tayeb: interview with Jamal Khalifa. several delegations: Anonymous, Through Our Enemies' Eyes, 146. "It means that Abdullah": interview with Mohammed Loay Baizid. conciliatory note: interview with Jamal Khashoggi. if he pledged to give up jihad: interview with Ahmed Badeeb. 11. The Prince of Darkness 202 "O'Neill": interview with Richard A. Clarke. 203 "nightclub wardrobe": interview with Steven Simon. 204 paint its jet: interview with Admiral Paul E. Busick. $12 million: Naftali, Blind Spot, 242. 205 Su-Casa: Reeve, New Jackals, 104. 207 "Sons of John": interview with Mark Rossini. 209 "This battle is not between al-Qaeda and the U.S.": Taysir Aluni interview with Osama bin Laden, al-Jazeera, October 2001. 210 new basing agreements: interview with Richard A. Clarke. former Egyptian minister: Alain Geresh, From Index on Censorship, www.geocities.com/saudhouse_p/endofan.htm, April 1996. 211 "Why would my car": Kevin Dennehy, "Cape Man Relives Close Call with Terrorist Bombing While in Saudi Arabia," Cape Cod Times, October 25,2001. torturing confessions: A vivid account of the roundup and torture of Arab Afghans following the 1995 bombing can be found in Jerichow, The Saudi File, 136-40. Farouk camp: Kohlmann, Al-Qaida's Jihad in Europe, 158. nearly identical confessions: Teitelbaum, Holier Than Thou, 76. "heroes": Anonymous, Through Our Enemies' Eyes, 141. fatwa urging jihad: Salah Najm and Jamal Ismail, "Osama bin Laden: The Destruction of the Base," al-Jazeera, June 10,1999. 212 "first terrorist blow": Prince Turki al-Faisal speech to Seton Hall University, October 14,2003. 12. The Boy Spies 213 Egyptian intelligence learned: Al-Ahram, July 5,1995. 214 married local women: interview with David Shinn. smuggled weapons: interview with Sadiq al-Mahdi. motivational talk: Al-Ahram, July 5,1995. The plan: interview with Saeed Badeeb. Mubarak's plane: interview with Hisham Kassem. grenade launcher malfunctioned: interview with Mohammed el-Shafey. return to the airport: interview with Saeed Badeeb. "The sons": Petterson, Inside Sudan, 179. 413 Notes 215 Houses were burned: interview with Hisham Kassem. thousands of suspects: Human-rights organizations estimate the number of Islamists still incarcerated in Egypt at 15,000; Islamists put the figure at 60,000. fiendish plan: interviews with Yassir el-Sirri, Montassir el-Zayyat, and Hani el-Sibai. a senior member: Mohammed el-Shafey, "Al-Zawahiri's Secret Papers," part 6, Al-Sharq al-Awsat, December 18,2002. "It could even": interview with Yassir el-Sirri. 216 "state within a state": Mohammed el-Shafey, "Al-Zawahiri's Secret Papers," part 6, Al-Sharq al-Awsat, December 18, 2002. fewer than a hundred: confessions of Ahmed Ibrahim al-Sayed al-Najjar, "Returnees from Albania" case, September 1998. "These are bad times": ibid. 217 November 19, 1995: The account of the Egyptian Embassy bombing comes from al-Hammadi, "The Inside Story of al-Qa'ida," part 9, March 28, 2005. cab driver: "Al-Qaida, Usama bin Laden's Vehicle for Action," unsigned CIA document, July 12, 2001. The document describes Abu Khabab as a "limousine driver," which in the Middle East is usually a euphemism for cab driver. 218 government rounded up: interview with Ismail Khan. there were no innocents: Maha Azzam, "Al-Qaeda: The Misunderstood Wahhabi Connection and the Ideology of Violence," Royal Institute of International Affairs Briefing Paper No. 1, February 2003. "A man may": Sahih Bukhari, vol. 8, bk. JJ, no. 60. 219 "a generation of mujahideen": Mohammed el-Shafey, "Al-Zawahiri's Secret Papers," part 6, Al-Sharq al-Awsat, December 18, 2002. "Do you remember": interview with Issam al-Turabi. his right testicle: Randal, Osama, 147. French had issued a similar indictment: interview with Ghazi Salah Eddin Atabani. 220 "if he apologizes": interview with Timothy Carney. "We are ready": interview with Elfatih Erwa. Both Richard A. Clarke, who was the national coordinator for security, infrastructure protection, and counterterrorism at the time, and his deputy Steven Simon dispute the point that the Sudanese ever formally offered bin Laden to the United States, but neither man was in the meeting, and it seems clear that the director of national security at the time, Sandy Berger, did explore the possibility of accepting bin Laden. The 9/11 Commission, however, stated that it found "no credible evidence" that Erwa had made the offer. 9/12 Commission Report, 110. 221 nurtured the fantasy: Barton Gellman, "U.S. Was Foiled Multiple Times in Efforts to Capture bin Laden or Have Him Killed," Washington Post, October 3, 2001. Bashir offered: "Arabs and Muslims Must Break Barriers, Contact Others: Turki," Saudi Gazette, November 11, 2002. "Give us proof": interview with Ahmed Badeeb. "Ask him to leave": interview with Ahmed Badeeb. 414 Notes Turabi and bin Laden argued: al-Hammadi, "The Inside Story of al-Qa'ida," part 3, March 21,2005. 222 Turabi did bin Laden the favor: Jason Burke, "The Making of bin Laden: Part 1," Observer, October 28, 2001. $12 million: Robert Block, "In the War Against Terrorism, Sudan Struck a Blow by Fleecing bin Laden," Wall Street Journal, December 3, 2001. "a mixture": ibid. 223 check for $2,400: testimony of L'Houssaine Kherchtou, U.S. v. Usama bin Laden, et al. Tupolev jet: interview with Jack Cloonan. Two of bin Laden's young sons: al-Hammadi, "The Inside Story of al- Qa'ida," part 3, March 21,2005. He held America responsible: interview with Jamal Khashoggi. 13. Hijira 224 given him money: interview with Ahmed Badeeb. abducted children: interview with Rahimullah Yusufzai. 225 disabled 4 percent: Tim Friend, "Millions of Land Mines Hinder Afghan Recovery," USA Today, November 27, 2001. most of them orphans: According to Thomas Gouttierre, director of the Center for Afghanistan Studies at the University of Nebraska-Omaha, 80 percent of the Taliban forces were orphans from the Soviet war. Anna Mulrine, "Unveiled Threat," U.S. News and World Report, October 15, 2001. three former mujahideen: Burke, Al-Qaeda, 145. Younis Khalis: interview with Rahimullah Yusufzai. teenage brides: Coll, Ghost Wars, 327. 226 hired pilots: U.S. Embassy (Islamabad) confidential cable, "Finally, a Talkative Talib: Origins and Membership of the Religious Students' Movement," February 20,1995. four Talibs in a jeep: interview with anonymous Pakistani diplomat. lost his right eye: Arnaud de Borchgrave, "Osama bin Laden—'Null and Void,' " UPI, June 14, 2001. crack marksman: Ismail Khan, "Mojaddedi Opposes Elevation of Taliban's Omar," Islamabad the News, April 6,1996. passable Arabic: interview with Farraj Ismail. 227 "Corruption and moral disintegration": Zaidan, Bin Laden Bila Qina\ vision of the Prophet: U.S. Embassy (Islamabad) confidential cable, "Finally, a Talkative Talib: Origins and Membership of the Religious Students' Movement," February 20,1995. 2,500 men: Nojumi, The Rise of the Taliban, 118. students in a vocational school: Coll, Ghost Wars, 294-95. three million Afghan refugees: interview with Prince Turki al-Faisal. Sufi shrines: Juan Cole, personal communication. 228 monthly stipend: Nojumi, The Rise of the Taliban, 119. beggars and sissies: Lamb, The Sewing Circles of Heart, 105. twelve thousand fighters: Burke, Al-Qaeda, 113. 415 Notes 228 10 percent tax: Nojumi, The Rise of the Taliban, 136. 229 tents for the wives: Robert Fisk, "Small Comfort in bin-Ladin's Dangerous Exile," Independent, July 11,1996. former Soviet collective: Jason Burke, "The Making of bin Laden: Part 1," Observer, October 28, 2001. Najm al-Jihad: "The Story of the Arab Afghans from the Time of Arrival in Afghanistan Until Their Departure with the Taliban, part 3," Al-Sharq al- Awsat, December 10, 2004. men bunked nearby: interview with Rahimullah Yusufzai. trade in honey: interview with Peter L. Bergen. Electricity: Mohammed el-Shafey, "Son of al-Qai'da Financier: 'Lived Next to bin Ladin's Family, Who Disliked Electricity and Called for Austerity,' " Al- Sharq al-Awsat, April 16, 2004. no international telephone: Robert Fisk, "Small Comfort in bin-Ladin's Dangerous Exile," Independent, July 11,1996. Americans were monitoring: Actually, according to Jack Cloonan, U.S. intelligence did not learn about the phone until 1997. He was suspicious: "Biography of Usamah bin-Ladin, Written by Brother Mujahid with Minor Modifications," Islamic Observation Center, April 22, 2000. Translated by FBIS. killed in an ambush: Burke, Al-Qaeda, 156. taught his wives: "The Story of the Arab Afghans from the Time of Arrival in Afghanistan Until Their Departure with the Taliban, Part 3," Al-Sharq al- Awsat, December 10, 2004. Translated by FBIS. 230 "We don't want subversive": Tim McGirk, "Home Away from Home," Time, December 16,1996. beaten and tortured: Rashid, Taliban, 49. "Women you should": from appendix 1 of ibid., 2i7ff. Rashid reproduced the Taliban decrees that had been translated from Dari and passed to reporters. He left the grammar and spelling as in the original. Statistics of female employment come from Anna Mulrine, "Unveiled Threat," U.S. News and World Report, October 15, 2001. 231 "unclean things": Amy Waldman, "No TV, No Chess, No Kites: Taliban's Code, from A to Z," New York Times, November 22, 2001. "Beatle-ly" . . . "her home will be marked": ibid. only animals that survived: interview with Bahram Rahman. "Throw reason": Burke, Al-Qaeda, 111. 232 overloaded ferry: testimony of Ashif Mohamed Juma, U.S. v. Usama bin Laden, et al. 234 "You are not unaware": Osama bin Laden, "Declaration of War Against the Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holy Places," Al-Quds al-Arabi, August 23,1996. 235 secretary f o r . . . Sayyaf : interview with Yosri Fouda. poorly trained: Fouda and Fielding, Masterminds of Terror, 116. month in the Philippines: interview with Frank Pellegrino. "Bojinka": 9/22 Commission Report, 488 n. Previous reports have erroneously stated that the term was a Serbo-Croatian word for "big bang." 416 Notes 236 Haruki Ikegami: Reeve, The New Jackals, 79. did not know Yousef: interview with Jamal Khashoggi, who says bin Laden "swore" to him that he did not know Yousef. Yousef did spend time in al- Qaeda camps and safe houses in 1989, however, and may have been in Peshawar at the same time that bin Laden was mediating the civil war in Afghanistan. Coll, Ghost Wars, 249. Mohammed Saleh, the Al-Hayat correspondent in Cairo, told me that Ramzi Yousef and bin Laden met in Pakistan, but he would not reveal the source of this information. sent a messenger: Reeve, The New Jackals, 76. sent to bin Laden diagrams: interview with Michael Scheuer. kill Pope John Paul II: Reeve, The New Jackals, 86. training pilots: 9/11 Commission Report, 149. 14. Going Operational 237 Khobar Towers: interviews with John Lipka, Dale Watson, Jack Cloonan, and anonymous political officer in Riyadh; Freeh, My FBI, nff. Kenneth M. Pollack, in personal communication, writes, "The Saudis fully concurred with our conclusion that Iran was behind Khobar Towers. I never heard the slightest hint that they believed al-Qa'eda was responsible. However, because they had begun their rapprochement with Tehran—and especially after Muhammad Khatemi's election in Iran—it was our strong sense that they did not want us to be able to reach that definitive conclusion for fear that we would either want to mount a retaliatory strike against the Iranians or feel compelled to do so." Richard A. Clarke and Steven Simon have expressed similar sentiments in interviews. The 9/11 Commission, however, leaves open the possibility of a connection between the Khobar Towers bombing and al-Qaeda, saying that there was "strong but indirect evidence" that the organization "did in fact play some as yet unknown role." Douglas Jehl, "No Saudi Payment to Qaeda Is Found," New York Times, June 19,2004. That evidence has not been made public, however. According to Michael Scheuer, the link was made in a memorandum prepared by the CIA and turned over to the commission. 238 "Wasn't that a great trip?": interview with Richard A. Clarke. Freeh, in personal communication, denies this exchange took place. O'Neill told many others the same story, however. 239 It was Naif who decided: interview with anonymous former U.S. State Department official. "Maybe you have": interview with Rihab Massoud. "go operational": interview with John Lipka. 240 "got this town wired": interview with R. P. Eddy. 241 TWA Flight 800: interviews with Richard A. Clarke, Tom Corrigan, and Tom Lang. Alec Station: interviews with Daniel Coleman and Michael Scheuer. 243 "Send ten green papers": exhibit from U.S. v. Usama bin Laden, et al. six children: bail hearing, U.S. v. Usama bin Laden, et al Coleman put the women: interview with Daniel Coleman. 244 "Would you like": interview with Daniel Coleman. 417 Notes 15. Bread and Water 245 They flattered him: Abdel Bari Atwan, "Interview with Saudi oppositionist Usmah bin-Ladin," Al-Quds al-Arabi, November 27,1996. endorsed their rule: Burke, "The Making of bin Laden: Part 1," Observer, October 28,2001. television crew: Bergen, Holy War, iyii. 247 sent a helicopter: al-Hammadi, "The Inside Story of al-Qa'ida," part 5, March 23, 2005. plot... to kidnap: "Walidee Ramama al-Aqsa Bilkhasara" [My Father Renovated al-Aqsa Mosque, with a Loss], Al-Umma al-Islamiyya, October 18,1991. 248 "We want a simple life": al-Hammadi, "The Inside Story of al-Qa'ida," part 5, March 23,2005. about eighty mud-brick: Coll, Ghost Wars, 391. "in perfect harmony": al-Hammadi, "The Inside Story of al-Qa'ida," part 6, March 24,2005. two T-55 Soviet tanks: Clarke, Against All Enemies, 149. "May God be praised": al-Hammadi, "The Inside Story of al-Qa'ida," part 6, March 24, 2005. 249 Switzerland: "Secrets of Relations Among al-Zawaheri, ben Ladan, and Hezb ul-Tahrir in Terrorist Operations in Europe" [sic], Al-Watan al-Arabi, October 13, 1995. Translated by FBIS. One of Zawahiri's associates testified in Egypt that he had had telephone contacts with Zawahiri in Geneva. Khalid Sharaf-al-Din, "Surprises in the Trial of the Largest International Fundamentalist Organization in Egypt," Al-Sharq al-Awsat, March 6,1999. Translated by FBIS. The Swiss villa is from "Al-Jihad Terrorist Claims Strong CIA-Terrorist Ties," MENA, September 8,1996. Yassir al-Sirri, who was close to al-Jihad, maintained in an interview that Zawahiri never lived in Switzerland, but Zawahiri's cousin Maha Azzam says he did. Bulgaria: interview with Saeed Badeeb. Copenhagen: interview with Jesper Stein; Michael Taarnby Jensen, personal correspondence. fake passport: Andrew Higgins and Alan Cullison, "Terrorist's Odyssey: Saga of Dr. Zawahri [sic] Illuminates Roots of al-Qaeda Terror," Wall Street Journal, July 2, 2002. satellite television channel: Wright, "The Man Behind bin Laden," New Yorker, September 16, 2002. "Conditions there": Andrew Higgins and Alan Cullison, "Terrorist's Odyssey: Saga of Dr. Zawahri [sic] Illuminates Roots of al-Qaeda Terror," Wall Street Journal, July 2, 2002. "If the Chechens": al-Zawahiri, "Knights Under the Prophet's Banner," part 7. 250 four passports: C. J. Chivers and Steven Lee Myers, "Chechen Rebels Mainly Driven by Nationalism," New York Times, September 12, 2004. "God blinded them": Andrew Higgins and Alan Cullison, "Terrorist's Odyssey: Saga of Dr. Zawahri [sic] Illuminates Roots of al-Qaeda Terror," Wall Street Journal, July 2, 2002. 4 1 8 Notes ISI subsidizing: Benjamin and Simon, The Age of Sacred Terror, 146. purchase some expensive vehicles: Vahid Mojdeh, in Bergen, The Osama bin Laden I Know, 164. a hundred-dollar-per-month: confessions of Ahmed Ibrahim al-Sayed al- Najjar, "Returnees from Albania" case, September 1998. 250 people: Abdurrahman Khadr, in Bergen, The Osama bin Laden I Know, 173. 251 "This place is worse": Alan CuUison and Andrew Higgins, "Strained Alliance: Inside al-Qaeda's Afghan Turmoil," Wall Street Journal, August 2, 2002. 254 play Nintendo: Abdel Bari Atwan, in Bergen, The Osama bin Laden I Know, 170. 255 Azza: interview with Maha Elsamneh. nonviolence initiative: interview with Montassir al-Zayyat. 256 twenty thousand Islamists: Weaver, A Portrait of Egypt, 264. Weaver estimates the number of Islamists slain to be between seven and eight thousand, 267. released two thousand: Rubin, Islamic Fundamentalism, 161. "The political translation": Mohammed el-Shafey, "Al-Zawahiri's Secret Papers," part 5, Al-Shara al-Awsat, December 17, 2002. Translated by FBIS. bargaining chip: interview with Hisham Kassem. 257 three thousand security: Weaver, A Portrait of Egypt, 272. red headbands: Douglas Jehl, "70 Die in Attack at Egypt Temple," New York Times, November 18,1997. "No to tourists": Weaver, A Portrait of Egypt, 259. dead included: Alan Cowell, "At a Swiss Airport, 36 Dead, Home from Luxor," New York Times, November 20, 1997; also, Douglas Jehl, "At Ancient Site Along the Nile, Modern Horror," New York Times, November 19,1997. 258 Rifai Taha said: Anonymous, Through Our Enemies' Eyes, 199. bin Laden had financed: Jailan Halawi, "Bin Laden Behind Luxor Massacre?" Al-Ahram Weekly, May 20-26,1999. "The young men": Lawrence Wright, "The Man Behind bin Laden," New Yorker, September 16, 2002. "We thought we'd never": interview with Hisham Kassem. 259 The main point: Fu'ad Husayn, "Al-Zarqawi... The Second Generation of al-Qa'ida, Part Fourteen," Al-Quds al-Arabi, July 13, 2005. who was responsible: al-Zawahiri, "Knights Under the Prophet's Banner," part 11. Zawahiri began writing: Kenneth M. Karas summation, U.S. v. Usama bin Laden, et al. 260 lamely explaining: Zayyat, The Road to al-Qaeda, 89. "dark past": Mohammed el-Shafey, "Al-Zawahiri's Secret Papers," part 2, trans. FBIS, Al-Sharq al-Awsat, December 14, 2002. "If the Contractor": Mohammed el-Shafey, "Al-Qaeda's Secret Emails," part 2, trans. FBIS, June 13, 2005. 261 pledged to resign: al-Zayyat, The Road to al-Qaeda, 109. Zawahiri's own brother: interview with Hani al-Sibai. "I myself heard": confessions of Ahmed Ibrahim al-Sayed al-Najjar, "Returnees from Albania" case, September 1998. 419 Notes 16. "Now It Begins" 262 thirty Algerians . . . Young men from Yemen: Burke, Al-Qaeda, 186. 263 staged and cartoonish: interview with Ismail Khan. "Let's talk": interview with Rahimullah Yusufzai. "Terrorism can be commendable": www.pbs.org/frontline. he wouldn't speak: al-Hammadi, "The Inside Story of al-Qa'ida," part 6, March 24,2005. kidney disease: interview with Rahimullah Yusufzai. 264 'Owhali . . . Azzam: testimony of Stephen Gaudin, U.S. v. Usama bin Laden, etal. erased the Saudis' faces: Miller, Stone, and Mitchell, The Cell, 192. 265 kidnap bin Laden: interviews with Michael Scheuer, Dale Watson, Mark Rossini, Daniel Coleman, and Richard A. Clarke. 267 "Finish this": interview with Prince Turki al-Faisal. left town: interview with Michael Scheuer. 268 "Are you agreed": The meeting with Mullah Omar is largely Turki's firsthand account. Michael Scheuer says, based on CIA coverage of the meeting, that Omar and Turki quarreled, with Omar reportedly saying, "Your highness, I have just one question: When did the royal family become lackeys of the Americans?" four hundred four-wheel-drive . . . Mazar-e-Sharif: Rashid, Taliban, 72-73. several hundred Arabs: ibid., 139. Ahmed Salama Mabruk: interviews with Daniel Coleman, Mark Rossini, and Montassir al-Zayyat. 269 tortured: interview with Hafez Abu-Saada. 270 Saleh: His real name is Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah, also known as Abu Mohammed el-Masri. He has never been captured. Interview with Ali Soufan; also, testimony of Stephen Gaudin, U.S. v. Usama bin Laden, et al. 273 "Now it begins": interview with Daniel Coleman. 274 Nairobi: interviews with Pascuale "Pat" D'Amuro, Stephen Gaudin, Mark Rossini, and Kenneth Maxwell. passports: interview with Ali Soufan. Stephen Gaudin: interview with Stephen Gaudin. 275 five American embassies: interview with Mark Rossini. 277 Ahmed al-Hada: interviews with Pascuale "Pat" D'Amuro, Daniel Coleman, and Ali Soufan. called the number: FBI document, "PENTBOM Major Case 182 AOT-IT," November 5, 2001. 279 "Kissinger's Promise": testimony of Stephen Gaudin, U.S. v. Usama bin Laden, etal. "connections": interview with Mary Lynn Stevens. issuing threats: interview with Grant Ashley. 281 raising money: interview with Michael Rolince. bypass surgery: interview with Paul Garmirian. 282 Jamal al-Fadl: interview with Mark Rossini. 420 Notes hired a spy: interview with Milt Bearden. Bearden thinks the foreign asset was either Egyptian or Tunisian. 283 If surveillance aircraft: interview with Admiral Bob Inman. refused to share the raw data: interview with Michael Scheuer. 284 "Where do you think": al-Hammadi, "The Inside Story of al-Qa'ida," part 9, March 28, 2005. "Can you at least": interview with Abdul Rahman Khadr. 285 twenty-two Afghans: U.S. Department of State confidential cable, "Osama bin Laden: Taliban Spokesman Seeks New Proposal for Resolving bin Laden Problem," November 28, 1998. Hospital sources and Pakistani officials counted eleven dead, and fifty-three wounded. Ismail Khan, "Varying versions," Islamabad the News, August 30,1998. "Each house": al-Hammadi, "The Inside Story of al-Qa'ida," part 9, March 28, 2005. bin Laden sold the unexploded missiles: Murad Ahmad, "Report Cites Russian 'Documents' on bin Ladin's Past," Al-Majellah, December 23,2001. 286 "survived the attack": interview with Rahimullah Yusufzai. iy. The New Millennium 287 Mullah Omar placed a secret call: U.S. Department of State confidential cable, "Afghanistan: Taliban's Mullah Omar's 8/22 Contact with State Department," August 22,1998. furious: interview with Rahimullah Yusufzai. He judged: U.S. Embassy (Islamabad) cable, "SLTREP 6: Pakistan/ Afghanistan Reaction to U.S. Strikes," August 25,1998. 288 "I shed tears": Robert Fisk, "Bin Laden's Secrets Are Revealed by al-Jazeera Journalist," Independent, October 23,2002. "We consider you": Burke, Al-Qaeda, 168. fishing: Stephen Braun and Judy Pasternak, "Long Before Sept. 11, bin Laden Aircraft Flew Under the Radar," Los Angeles Times, November 18,2001. "This time": interview with Prince Turki al-Faisal. 289 on drugs: "Spiegel Interview: 'And Then Mullah Omar Screamed at Me,' " Der Spiegel, March 8, 2004. Translated by Christopher Sultan. they were easily relocated: interview with Abdul Rahman Khadr. 290 "There is no need": al-Hammadi, "The Inside Story of al-Qa'ida," part 6, March 24, 2005. "Did you expect": ibid. 291 military objected: 9/12 Commission Report, 131. 292 "burned out": interview with Michael Scheuer. 294 "Catholic thing": interview with Grant Ashley. 295 "Gee, John": interview with anonymous FBI agent. paying the mortgage: Weiss, The Man Who Warned America, 279. borrowing money: interview with Joe Cantemessa. "common strategy": Anonymous, Through Our Enemies' Eyes, 124. the prophesied Mahdi: interview with Ahmed Badeeb. stop backing anti-Saddam insurgents: 9/11 Commission Report, 61. 421 Notes 295 met the Iraqi dictator: Jeffrey Goldberg, "The Great Terror," New Yorker, March 25, 2002. 296 Iraqi intelligence officials flew: 9/11 Commission Report, 66. Zawahiri went to Baghdad: "Iraq: Former PM Reveals Secret Service Data on Birth of al-Qaeda in Iraq," Aki, May 23,2005. 297 piece of the infrastructure: interview with Lewis Schiliro. The CIA warned: statement of Samuel R. Berger, Joint Congressional Inquiry, September 19, 2002. "Hey, we've got something": Robert Draper, "The Plot to Blow Up LAX," GQ, December 2001. 298 Times Square: interviews with Joseph Dunne and Mark Rossini. "If they're gonna": Clarke, Against All Enemies, 214. 299 Night of Power: interview with Robert McFadden. 18. Boom 301 middle or upper: interview with Marc Sageman. Many of the statistics derive from his important study, Understanding Terror Networks. mental disorders: Sageman remarks that "only four of the 400 men [in his sample] had any hint of a disorder. This is below the worldwide base rate for thought disorders." Marc Sageman, "Understanding Terror Networks," ENotes, Foreign Policy Research Institute, November 1, 2004. middle-class professionals: Nick Fielding, "Osama's Recruits Well- Schooled," Sunday Times, April 3,2005. young, single men: interview with Abdullah Anas. Shia Muslims had participated: interview with Abdullah Anas. ten and twenty thousand trainees: 9/21 Commission Report, 66. Sageman privately estimates the number of recruits during this period was no more than five thousand. 302 Utopian goals: Bernstein, Out of the Blue, 86. three main stages: al-Hammadi, "The Inside Story of al-Qa'ida," part 5, March 23, 2005. 303 "enemies of Islam": interview with Ali Soufan. "shooting the personality": David Rohde and C. J. Chivers, "Al-Qaeda's Grocery Lists and Manuals of Killing," New York Times, March 17, 2002. Kamikaze Camp: Abu Zayd, "After Ben Ladan's Return to Afghanistan and Revival of Fundamentalist Alliance," Al-Watan al-Arabi, June 7,1996. Arnold Schwarzenegger: interview with Jack Cloonan. The author's own movie, The Siege, was also viewed by al-Qaeda members. "the destructive power": Alan Cullison and Andrew Higgins, "Computer in Kabul Holds Chilling Memos," Wall Street Journal, December 31, 2001. 304 five hours to die: undated, unsigned document, "CIA Report on the Zawahiri Brothers." Yazid Sufaat: "Is al-Qaeda Making Anthrax?" CBS News, October 9,2003; Eric Lipton, "Qaeda Letters Are Said to Show Pre-9/11 Anthrax Plans," New York Times, May 21, 2005. preferred nuclear bombs: "The Story of the Afghan Arabs," Al-Sharq al- Awsat, part 1, December 8,2004. 422 Notes 305 Hamburg: interviews with Georg Mascolo, Josef Joffe, Jochen Bittner, Manfred Murck, and Cordula Meyer. 200,306: "The Hamburg Connection," BBC News, August 19, 2005. 306 "a good man": 9/21 Commission Report, 165. 307 "elegant": John Crewdson, "From Kind Teacher to Murderous Zealot," Chicago Tribune, September 11,2004. "I had a difficult": Brian Ross, "Face to Face with a Terrorist," ABC News, June 6,2002. signed a standardized will: Fouda and Fielding, Masterminds of Terror, 82. Atta was enraged: Nicholas Hellen, John Goetz, Ben Smalley, and Jonathan Ungoed-Thomas, "God's Warrior," Sunday Times, January 13, 2002. "planes operation": ibid., 154. 308 spring of 1999: "Substitution for the Testimony of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed," U.S. v. Moussaoui. only ones involved: 9/11 Commission Report, 155. "America is": "Bin Laden's Sermon for the Feast of the Sacrifice," MEMRI Special Dispatch Series—No. 476, www.memri.org, March 5,2003. Sears Tower: Paul Martin, "Chicago, L.A. Towers Were Next Targets," Washington Times, March 30, 2004. 309 Nawaf al-Hazmi: Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities Before and After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11,2001,131; and Der Spiegel, Inside 9-11,16. Khaled al-Mihdhar: Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities Before and After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001, 131; interview with Ali Soufan; and Eric Watkins, personal communication. Ramadan: Georg Mascolo, "Operation Holy Tuesday," Der Spiegel, October 27,2003. bin al-Shibh: interview with Ali Soufan. 310 "Something nefarious": 9/21 Commission Report, 353. 311 CIA already had the names: interview with Saeed Badeeb. "We need to continue the effort": "Three 9/11 Hijackers: Identification, Watchlisting, and Tracking," Staff Statement No. 2,4, National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. "This is not a matter": interview with Mark Rossini. "Is this a no go": Miller is identified as "Dwight" in "A Review of the FBI's Handling of Intelligence Information Related to the September 11 Attacks," Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General, November 2004, 233. 313 drowning in a flood of threats: interview with an anonymous CIA employee of Alec Station, who told me, "The real miracle is that there was only one major failure." twelve employees: The 9/11 Commission Report, 479. "Manson Family": Steve Coll, "A Secret Hunt Unravels in Afghanistan," Washington Post, February 22, 2004. 314 Bayoumi: Michael Isikoff and Evan Thomas, "The Saudi Money Trail," Newsweek, December 2,2002; 9/22 Commission Report, 215-18; Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities Before and After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001,172-74; "A Review of the FBI's Handling of Intelligence Information Related to the September 11 Attacks," Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General, November 2004, 325. 423 Notes 315 going nowhere: interview with Jack Cloonan. 318 "centralization": al-Hammadi, "The Inside Story of al-Qa'ida," part 4, March 22,2005. USS The Sullivans: 9/11 Commission Report, 190-91. shaped charges: Benjamin and Simon, The Age of Sacred Terror, 323. "Enough of words": Bergen, Holy War, 186. 319 Aden: interview with anonymous former CIA officer. USS Cole: interviews with Barbara Bodine, Kenneth Maxwell, Thomas Pickard, Pascuale "Pat" D'Amuro, Jim Rhody, Tom Donlon, Ali Soufan, Kevin Giblin, Barry Mawn, David Kelley, Mark Rossini, and Kevin Donovan; also, John O'Neill, "The Bombing of the U.S.S. Cole," speech given at 19th Annual Government/Industry Conference on Global Terrorism, Political Instability, and International Crime, March 2001; Graham, Intelligence Matters, 60-61; Bergen, Holy War, 184-92; Weiss, The Man Who Warned America, 287-312; "The Man Who Knew," www.pbs.org." 324 clear directives: interview with Michael Sheehan. 329 "errand boy": interview with Ali Soufan. Soufan queried the CIA: According to Soufan, "the agency went behind my back" to interview his source in Afghanistan in December 2000. The agency was sharing his source at this time, but in accordance with protocol, brought along the FBI legal attaché from Islamabad. At this time, the CIA officer had the source identify a surveillance photo of Khallad from the Malaysia meeting. This allowed the agency to correctly say that the FBI was present when the picture was shown; however, the interview was conducted in Arabic, a language that the FBI attaché didn't speak, so he was unaware of what was actually transpiring. 331 Samsonite suitcases: "The Story of the Afghan Arabs," Al-Sharq al-Awsat, part 4, December 12, 2004. Bin Laden separated: 9/11 Commission Report, 191. launching another missile: Clinton, My Life, 925. hoped to lure: interview with Ali Soufan. 19. The Big Wedding 333 marriage: interviews with Ahmed Zaidan, Jamal Khalifa, and Maha Elsamneh; Zeidan, Bin Laden Bila Qina', 109-58. A destroyer. "Bin Laden Verses Honor Cole Attack," Reuters, March 2, 2001. 334 sleeplessness: Abdullah bin Osama bin Laden says that his father was only sleeping two or three hours a night. "Bin Laden's Son Defiant," BBC, October 14,2001. Our men are in revolt: government exhibit, U.S. v. Moussaoui. Dick Clarke: interview with Richard A. Clarke; also, Clarke, Against All Enemies, 225-34. The 9In Commission Report says that Clarke told Rice he wanted to be reassigned in May or June; he told me March. 335 Rice demurred: Philip Shenon and Eric Schmitt, "Bush and Clinton Aides Grilled by Panel," New York Times, March 24, 2004. eighty thousand dollars: interview with Valerie James. O'Neill's base salary was $120,336. 424 Notes 336 "hot-blooded revolutionary": Mohammed el-Shafey, "UBL's Aide al- Zawahiri Attacks Jihad Members Taking Refuge in Europe/ " Al-Sharq al- Awsat, April 23, 2001. Translated by FBIS. 337 Ahmed Shah Massoud: interview with Abdullah Anas; Kathy Gannon, "Osama Ordered Assassination," Advertiser, August 16, 2002; Jon Lee Anderson, "Letter from Kabul: The Assassins," New Yorker, June 10, 2002; Burke, Al- Qaeda, 177; Mike Boettcher and Henry Schuster, "How Much Did Afghan Leader Know?" CNN, November 6, 2003; 9/22 Commission Report, 139; Defense Intelligence Agency confidential cable, 'TIR [Excised]/The Assassination of Massoud Related to 11 September 2001 Attack," November 21,2001; Benjamin and Simon, The Age of Sacred Terror, 338; Coll, Ghost Wars, 568. 338 "using an airplane": Sam Tannehaus, "The C.I.A.'s Blind Ambition," Vanity Fair, January 2002. Tannehaus reports the attack was going to be on the G-8 in Genoa, but Clarke told me that the tip involved a presidential assassination in Rome. Wakil Ahmed Muttawakil: "Newspaper Says U.S. Ignored Terror Warning," Reuters, September 7,2002. Jordanian intelligence: John K. Cooley, "Other Unheeded Warnings Before 9/11?" Christian Science Monitor, May 23, 2002. Amal al-Sada: interview with Ali Soufan. "Songs and merriment": al-Hammadi, "The Inside Story of al-Qa'ida," part 6, March 24, 2005. mother chastised: interview with Ali Soufan. 339 "We're going to kill": interview with Richard A. Clarke. 340 "Something bad": Dana Priest, "Panel Says Bush Saw Repeated Warnings," Washington Post, April 13, 2004. Intelink: Intelink is a handicapped system available to other intelligence agencies. It would have shown Gillespie only what was available to FBI intelligence. Had she looked on the Hercules system, the powerful CIA database that contained all the cables and NSA traffic and was available to her, she would have gotten a complete picture of the agency's knowledge of Mihdhar and Hazmi. June 11: interviews with Dina Corsi, Steven Bongardt, Ali Soufan, and Mark Rossini. Miller, Stone, and Mitchell, The Cell, 305; Cofer Black statement, September 20, 2002, Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities Before and After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11,2001. Dina Corsi told me that she had written the names of Mihdhar and Hazmi on the backs of the photographs, so that the names were made available to the criminal agents on the I-49 squad, but Bongardt says he never saw them. 343 "the Wall": interviews with Jack Cloonan, Ali Soufan, Pascuale "Pat" D'Amuro, Daniel Coleman, Admiral Bob Inman; 9/22 Commission Report, 78-80. given birth: 9/22 Commission Report, 2.2.2.. 344 Pink Floyd: interview with Ali Soufan. O'Neill... in Spain: interviews with Mark Rossini, Valerie James, Enrique Garcia, Emiliano Burdiel Pascual, and Teodoro Gomez Dominguez. 345 Atta . . . also in the country: interviews with José Maria Irujo, Keith Johnson, and Ramon Perez Maura; Joint Congressional Inquiry, 239; Fouda and Fielding, Masterminds of Terror, 137. 425 Notes 346 Irish Republican Army: interview with Dan Coleman. 349 "The duties of this religion": "Rede des Scheich usamma Bin LADEN anlàfilich des Fitr-Festes erster schawal 1420." [Speech of Sheikh Osama Bin Laden on the occasion of the Fitr celebration of the first schawal 1420], Motassadeq Document, Trans. Chester Rosson. I have modified some of the grammar and the stilted language, which was translated from Arabic to German to English. 350 alarming electronic communication: interviews with Jack Cloonan, Mark Rossini, and Daniel Coleman; Miller, Mitchell, and Stone, The Cell, 289; Joint Congressional Inquiry, 20. In FBI vernacular, an "electronic communication" is an e-mail that requires a response; it is not an informal document. It has superseded teletypes as a formal communication. 351 Zacarias Moussaoui: interviews with Richard A. Clarke and Michael Rolince; 9/12 Commission Report, 273-76. Yazid Sufaat: 9/22 Commission Report, 151; "Entrepreneurs of Terrorism," Weekend Australian, July 24, 2004. "Today is": Weiss, The Man Who Warned America, 350. 352 INS: interviews with Ali Soufan, Jack Cloonan, Mark Rossini, and Daniel Coleman; Eleanor Hill, "The Intelligence Community's Knowledge of the September 11 Hijackers Prior to September 11,2001," Joint Inquiry Staff Statement, Joint Congressional Inquiry, September 20, 2002. 354 "I left because": Roula Khalaf, "Dinner with the FT: Turki al-Faisal," Financial Times, November 1, 2003. "over-ripened fruit": Paul Mcgeough, "The Puppeteer," Sydney Morning Herald, October 8, 2002. "huge burden": Weiss, The Man Who Warned America, 359. Massoud: Jon Lee Anderson, "Letter from Kabul: The Assassins," New Yorker, June 10,2002. 355 Mullah Mohammed Khaksar: Kathy Gannon, "Osama 'Ordered Assassination,' " Advertiser, August 17,2002. "We're overdue": interviews with Jerome Hauer and Robert Tucker. 356 mountains above Khost: interview with Ali Soufan. "We were playing": videotape of bin Laden's dinner with Sheikh Ali Saeed al-Ghamdi. banned all talk of dreams: Sageman, Understanding Terror Networks, 117. America in ashes: Peter Finn, "Hamburg's Cauldron of Terror," Washington Post, September 11, 2002. 357 nine thousand gallons: Der Spiegel, Inside 9-11, 50. O'Neill helped usher: Weiss, The Man Who Warned America, 366. "Wait, wait": interview with Ali Soufan. 358 held up three fingers: Mike Boettcher, "Detainees Reveal bin Laden's Reaction to Attacks," CNN.com, September 10, 2002. 359 north tower: Details of the scene inside come from interviews with Kurt Kjeldsen and Michael Hingson; the video footage shot by Jules and Gedeon Naudet; Murphy, September 11; Fink and Mathias, Never Forget; and Smith, Report from Ground Zero. "Is it true": interview with Wesley Wong. 426 Notes 360 dust was a compound: Anthony DePalma, "What Happened to That Cloud of Dust?" New York Times, November 2, 2005. 20. Revelations 363 Quso and Abu Jandal interrogations: interviews with Ali Soufan and Robert McFadden. 368 special protocol: Weiss, The Man Who Warned America, 383. 370 "We planned": John R. Bradley, "Definitive Translation of 'Smoking Gun' Tape." www.johnrbradley.com/art_27.html, July 15, 2004. translated by Ali al- Ahmed. "I never knew": interview with Maha Elsamneh. 371 Tora Bora: Smucker, Al-Qaeda's Great Escape, 119-20. "We were about": bin Laden audiotape: "Message to Our Muslim Brothers in Iraq," BBCNews.com, February 12, 2003. "Only a few": "Al-Majellah Obtains bin Ladin's Will," Al-Majellah, October 27,1992. Translated by FBIS. 372 "I saw a heavy": Ilene R. Prusher, "Two Top al-Qaeda Leaders Spotted," Christian Science Monitor, March 26,2002. 427
BIBLIOGRAPHY Abbas, Hamid. Story of the Great Expansion. Jeddah: Saudi Bin Ladin Group [sic], 1996. Abdel-Malek, Anouar. Egypt: Military Society. Translated by Charles Lam Markmann. New York: Random House, 1968. Abdelnasser, Walid Mahmoud. The Islamic Movement in Egypt: Perceptions of International Relations, 1967-81. London: Kegan Paul International, 1994. Abdo, Geneive. No God but God: Egypt and the Triumph of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Abdullah, Isam. "Al-Majellah Tuhawir Shahid Ayan Arabi ala Hisar Kandahar" [Al-Majellah Interviews an Arab Witness to the Siege of Kandahar]. Translated by May Ibrahim. Al-Majellah, December 3,2001. Abir, Mordechai. Saudi Arabia: Government, Society, and the Gulf Crisis. New York: Routledge, 1993. Abou El Fadl, Khaled. "The Ugly Modern and the Modern Ugly: Reclaiming the Beautiful in Islam." In Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism, edited by Omid Safi. Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2003. et al. The Place of Tolerance in Islam. Boston: Beacon Press, 2002. AbuKhalil, As'ad. Bin Laden, Islam, and America's New "War on Terrorism." New York: Seven Stories, 2002. Abu-Rabi, Ibrahim M. Intellectual Origins of Islamic Resurgence in the Modern Arab World. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996. Aburish, Saïd K. The Rise, Corruption, and Coming Fall of the House of Saud. New York: St. Martin's, 1996. Ajami, Fouad. The Arab Predicament: Arab Political Thought and Practice Since 1967. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981. . The Dream Palace of the Arabs: A Generation's Odyssey. New York: Pantheon Books, 1998. Algar, Hamid. Wahhabism: A Critical Essay. New York: Islamic Publications International, 2002. Amin, Mohamed. The Beauty ofMakkah and Madinah. Nairobi: Camerapix Publishers International, 1999. "Amreeka Tantaqim wa bin Laden Yuhadid" [America Avenges and bin Laden Threatens]. Translated by Dina Ibrahim. Akhbar al-Hawadith, October 11, 2001, no. 497. 4 29
Anas, Abdullah. Wiladat al-Afghan al-Arab: Seerat Abdulla Anas bayna masood wa Abdulla Azzam [The Birth of the Arab Afghans: The Memoirs of Abdullah Anas: Between Masood and Abdullah Azzam]. Beirut: Dar al-Saqee, 2002. Anonymous. Through Our Enemies' Eyes: Osama bin Laden, Radical Islam, and the Future of America. Washington, D.C.: Brassey's, 2002. "Aqdam al-Afghan al-Arab Yatahadath lilSharq al-Awsat 'an Maseeratihi alatee Awsalat'hoo fee al-Nihayya ila al-Sijn fee al-Saudia" [The Oldest of Arab Afghans Speaks to al-Sharq al-Awsat About His Journey That Led Him in the End to a Saudi Arabian Prison]. Translated by Amjad M. Abu Nseir. Al-Sharq al-Awsat, November 25,2001. Armstrong, Karen. Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet. New York: HarperCollins, 1992. al-Aroosi, Mahmoud Kamel. Muhakamat Sayyid Qutb. Translated by Nidal Daraiseh. Cairo: Matba'at al-Jamhooriya al-Hadeetha, 1995. Asaad, Khalid Khalil. Mukatil Min Mecca [A Warrior from Mecca]. Translated by Nidal Daraiseh. London: al-ITam, 2001. Atwan, Abdel Bari. The Secret History ofal-Qa'ida. London; Saqi, 2006. "Ayna Thahaba Qatalat al-Sadat?" [Where Have the Killers of Sadat Gone?]. Translated by Mandi Fahmy. Akhir Sa'ah [The Last Hour], October 24,2001, pp. 36-39. Azzam, Abdullah. The Lofty Mountain. London: Azzam Publications, 2003. ."Martyr Sayyid Qutb: A Giant of Islamic Thought." www.azzam.com (now defunct). . "The Solid Base" [Al-Qaeda]. Al-Jihad, April 1988, no. 41. Badeeb, Saeed M. The Saudi-Egyptian Conflict Over North Yemen, 1962-1970. Boulder, Col.: Westview, 1986. Baer, Robert. Sleeping with the Devil. New York: Crown Publishers, 2003. Bahmanyar, Mir. Afghanistan Cave Complexes, 1979-2004. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Group, 2004. Baker, Raymond William. Islam Without Fear: Egypt and the New Islamists. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003. Bamford, James. A Pretext for War: 9/11, Iraq, and the Abuse of America's Intelligence Agencies. New York: Doubleday, 2004. Bearden, Milt, and James Risen. The Main Enemy: The Inside Story of the CIA's Final Showdown with the KGB. New York: Random House, 2003. Bell, J. Bower. Murders on the Nile. San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2003. Belloc, Hilaire. The Great Heresies. Manassas, Va.: Trinity Communications, 1987. Benjamin, Daniel, and Steven Simon. The Age of Sacred Terror. New York: Random House, 2003. Bergen, Peter L. Holy War: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden. New York: Free Press, 2001. . The Osama bin Laden I Know: An Oral History of al-Qaeda's Leader. New York: Free Press, 2006. Berman, Paul. Terror and Liberalism. New York: Norton, 2003. Bernstein, Richard. Out of the Blue: The Story of September 11, 2001, from Jihad to Ground Zero. New York: Times Books, 2002. Bin Ladin, Carmen. Inside the Kingdom: My Life in Saudi Arabia. New York: Warner Books, 2004. 430 Bibliography Blum, Howard. The Eve of Destruction: The Untold Story of the Yom Kippur War. New York: HarperCollins, 2003. Borovik, Artyom. The Hidden War: A Russian Journalist's Account of the Soviet War in Afghanistan. New York: Grove Press, 1990. Brogan, Daniel. "Al-Qaeda's Greeley Roots." 5280 (June/July 2003): 158-65. Burke, Jason. Al-Qaeda: Casting a Shadow of Terror. London: I. B. Taurus, 2003. Burr, J. Millard, and Robert O. Collins. Revolutionary Sudan: Hasan al-Turabi and the Islamist State, 1989-2000. Leiden: Brill, 2003. Burton, Richard F. Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to al-Madina and Meccah. Vols. 1 and 2. Edited by Isabel Burton. New York: Dover, 1964. Calvert, John. " 'The World Is an Unduriful Boy!': Sayyid Qutb's American Experience." Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 11, no. 1 (2000). Campbell, Kurt M., and Michèle A. Flournoy To Prevail: An American Strategy for the Campaign Against Terrorism. Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2001. Carré, Oliver. Mysticism and Politics: A Critical Reading of Fi Zilal al-Qur'an by Sayyid Qutb (1906-1966). Translated from the French by Carol Artigues and revised by W. Shepard. Leiden: Brill, 2003. Champion, Daryl. The Paradoxical Kingdom: Saudi Arabia and the Momentum of Reform. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002. Clarke, Richard A. Against All Enemies: Inside America's War on Terror. New York: Free Press, 2004. Clinton, Bill. My Life. New York: Knopf, 2004. Coll, Steve. Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. New York: Penguin, 2004. Cooley, John K. Unholy Wars. London: Pluto Press, 2000. Corbin, Jane. Al-Qaeda: In Search of the Terror Network That Threatens the World. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press / Nation Books, 2002. Cordovez, Diego, and Selig S. Harrison. Out of Afghanistan: The Inside Story of the Soviet Withdrawal. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Country Reports on Terrorism 2004. [no city]: U.S. Department of State, 2005. Crile, George. Charlie Wilson's War: The Extraordinary Story of the Largest Covert Operation in History. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2003. Der Spiegel Reporters, Writers, and Editors. Inside 9-11: What Really Happened. Translated by Paul De Angelis and Elisabeth Koestner. New York: St. Martin's, 2001. Esposito, John. Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Euben, Roxanne L. Enemy in the Mirror: Islamic Fundamentalism and the Limits of Modern Rationalism. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1999. Fandy, Mamoun. Saudi Arabia and the Politics of Dissent. London: Palgrave, 2001. Feininger, Andreas. New York in the Forties. New York: Dover, 1978. Fernea, Elizabeth Warnock, and Robert A. Fernea. The Arab World: Forty Years of Change. New York: Doubleday, 1997. Fink, Mitchell, and Lois Mathias. Never Forget: An Oral History of September 11, 2001. New York: HarperCollins, 2002. Fouda, Yosri, and Nick Fielding. Masterminds of Terror: The Truth Behind the Most Devastating Terrorist Attack the World Has Ever Seen. New York: Arcade, 2003. 431 Bibliography Frady, Marshall. Billy Graham: A Parable of American Righteousness. Boston: Little, Brown, 1979. Freeh, Louis J., with Howard Means. My FBI: Bringing Down the Mafia, Investigating Bill Clinton, and Fighting the War on Terror. New York: St. Martin's, 2005. Friedman, Thomas L. From Beirut to Jerusalem. New York: Doubleday, 1989. Geffs, Mary L. Under Ten Flags: A History of Weld County, Colorado. Greeley: McVey Printery, 1938. Gold, Dore. Hatred's Kingdom. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing, 2003. Goldschmidt, Arthur Jr. Biographical Dictionary of Modern Egypt. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 2000. Graham, Bob, with Jeff Nussbaum. Intelligence Matters: The CIA, the FBI, Saudi Arabia, and the Failure of America's War on Terror. New York: Random House, 2004. Griffin, Michael. Reaping the Whirlwind: The Taliban Movement in Afghanistan. London: Pluto Press, 2001. Guenena, Nemat. "The 'Jihad': An 'Islamic Alternative' in Egypt." Master's thesis, American University in Cairo Press, 1985. Gunaratna, Rohan. Inside al-Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. London: Hurst, 2002. Habeeb, Kamal Saeed. Al-Haraka al-Islamiyya min al-Muqwajaha ila al-Muraja'a [The Islamic Movement from Confrontation to Revision]. Translated by Mandi Fahmy. Cairo: Maktabat Madbooly, 2002. Halliday, Fred. Two Hours That Shook the World. London: Saqi, 2002. al-Hammadi, Khalid. "The Inside Story of al-Qa'ida, as Told by Abu-Jandal (Nasir al-Bahri), bin Ladin's Personal Guard." Translated by FBIS. Al-Quds al-Arabi. Hamza, Khaled. "Al-Doctor—al-Khaleefa al-Muntathar: Qisat Ayman al-Zawahiri min al-Tafawuq fee al-Tib li-Qiadat Tantheemat Irhabiyya" [The Doctor—the Awaited Khalif: Ayman al-Zawahiri's Story from Excelling in Medicine to Leading Terrorist Groups]. Translated by Mandi Fahmy. Akhir Sa'ah [The Last Hour], October 2001, no. 3495, pp. 8-9. Hannonen, Sanna. "Egyptian Islamist Discourse: On Political and Social Thought of Hasan al-Banna (1906-1949) and Sayyid Qutb (1906-1966)." Master's thesis, University of Helsinki, 1999. Harmony Documents. United States Department of Defense database, www.ctc .usma.edu/aq_harmonylist.asp Heikal, Mohammed. Autumn of Fury: The Assassination of Sadat. New York: Random House, 1983. . Iran: The Untold Story. New York: Pantheon, 1982. Holden, David, and Richard Johns. The House ofSaud: The Rise and Rule of the Most Powerful Dynasty in the Arab World. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1981. Hourani, Albert. A History of the Arab Peoples. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002. Huband, Mark. Warriors of the Prophet: The Struggle for Islam. Boulder: Westview, 1998. Ibrahim, Saad Eddin. Egypt Islam and Democracy: Critical Essays. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 1996. Ismail, Faraj. "Fee Awal Hadeeth Lahoo Ba'd al-Harb: Ayman Zawahiri Yatahadath LilMajalla 'an Ikhtifa bin Laden wa Qisat al-Khiana wa al-Huroob min 432 Bibliography Afghanistan!" [In His First Interview After the War: Ayman Zawahiri Speaks to al-Majalla on the Disappearance of bin Laden, the Story of Betrayal, and Fleeing from Afghanistan]. Translated by Mandi Fahmy. Al-Majalla, December 2001, no. 1140, pp. 12-13. Ismail, Jamal Abdul Latif. "Bin Laden wa al-Jazeera w a . . . Anaa" [Bin Laden, al- Jazeera and... Me]. Translated by Amjad M. Abu Nseir. London: Islamic Observation Centre, 2001. Jacquard, Roland. In the Name of Osama bin Laden: Global Terrorism and the bin Laden Brotherhood. Translated by George Holoch. Durham: Duke University Press, 2002. Jerichow, Anders. The Saudi File: People, Power, Politics. New York: St. Martin's, 1998. Johnson, Paul. Modern Times. New York: Harper and Row, 1983. Joint Inquiry Into Intelligence Community Activities Before and After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001: Report of the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and U.S. House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. Washington, D.C., December 2002. Jordan, Javier. Profetas del miedo: Aproximaciôn al terrorismo islamista. Pamplona: EUNSA, 2004. Kechichian, Joseph A. "Islamic Revivalism and Change in Saudi Arabia." The Muslim World 80, no. 1 (January 1990): 1-16. Kepel, Gilles. Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. Translated by Anthony F. Roberts. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002. . Muslim Extremism in Egypt: The Prophet and Pharaoh. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. al-Khaledi, Salah Abdel Fatah. Amrika min al-dakhil bi minzar Sayyid Qutb [America from the Inside from the Viewpoint of Sayyid Qutb]. 2d ed. Translated by Nidal Daraiseh. Jiddah: Dar al-Minara, 1986. . Sayyid Qutb: al-adib, al-naqid, wa-al-da'iyah al-mujahid, wa-al-mufakkir almufassir al-raïid [Sayyid Qutb: The Scholar, the Critic, the Preacher, the Warrior, the Explainer, the Pioneer]. Translated by Nidal Daraiseh. Damascus: Dar al-Qalam, 2000. . Sayyid Qutb: al-shaheed al-hay [Sayyid Qutb: The Living Martyr]. Translated by Nidal Daraiseh. Amman: Maktabat al-Aqsa, 1981. . Sayyid Qutb: min al-milad ila al-istishihad [Sayyid Qutb: From Birth to Martyrdom]. Translated by Nidal Daraiseh. Damascus: Dar al-Qalam, 1991. Kinsey, Alfred C, et al. Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1948. Kohlmann, Evan F. Al-Qaida's Jihad in Europe: The Afghan-Bosnian Network. Oxford: Berg, 2004. Lacey, Robert. The Kingdom: Saudi Arabia and the House of Sa'ud. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1981. Lamb, Christina. The Sewing Circles of Heart: My Afghan Years. London: Flamingo, 2003. Larson, Robert W. Shaping Educational Change: The First Century of the University of Northern Colorado at Greeley. Boulder: Colorado Associated University Press, 1989. Lawrence, T. E. Seven Pillars of Wisdom. New York: Doubleday, 1926. 433 Bibliography Lewis, Bernard. The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror. New York: Modern Library, 2003. Lippman, Thomas W. Inside the Mirage: America's Fragile Partnership with Saudi Arabia. Boulder, Col: Westview, 2004. Long, David E. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1997. "Looking for Answers." Frontline, www.pbs.org/frontline. Mackey, Sandra. The Saudis: Inside the Desert Kingdom. New York: Norton, 2002. Mackintosh-Smith, Tim. Yemen: The Unknown Arabia. Woodstock: Overlook Press, 2000. Manchester, William. The Glory and the Dream. Boston: Little, Brown, 1974. Mansfield, Peter. The Arabs. London: Penguin Books, 1992. de Marenches, [Alexandre], interviewed by Christine Ockrent. The Evil Empire: The Third World War Now. Translated by Simon Lee and Jonathan Marks. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1988. Matar, 'Ala. "Matha Ba'd al-Mawaqif al-Jadeeda Liqada al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya?" [What After the New Positions of the Leadership of the Islamic Group?]. Translated by Mandi Fahmy Akhir Sa'ah, February 2002, no. 3512, pp. 30-31. McCullough, David. Truman. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992. Mayer, Jane. "The House of bin Laden." New Yorker, November 12, 2001. Miller, John, and Michael Stone, with Chris Mitchell. The Cell: Inside the 9/11 Plot, and Why the FBI and CIA Failed to Stop It. New York: Hyperion, 2002. "Min Ayman ila Walidataho" [From Ayman to His Mother]. Translated by Mandi Fahmy. Al-Wasat, February 21,1994. Mitchell, Richard P. The Society of the Muslim Brothers. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. Mohammed, Basil. Al-Ansar al-Arabfi Afganistan. [Pages from the Registry of Arab Cohorts in Afghanistan]. No translator given. Jeddah: House of Learning, 1991. Moore, Robin. The Hunt for bin Laden: Task Force Dagger. New York: Random House, 2003. Morris, Benny. The Road to Jerusalem: Glubb Pasha, Palestine, and the Jews. London: LB. Taurus, 2002. Moussalli, Ahmad S. Radical Islamic Fundamentalism: The Ideological and Political Discourse ofSayyid Qutb. Beirut: American University of Beirut, 1992. Mubarak, Hisham. Al-Irhabiyoon Qadimoon! Dirasa Muqarana Bayna Mawqif alkhwan al-Muslimoon wa Gama'at al-Gihad min Qadiat al-Unf 1938-1994 [The Terrorists Are Coming: A Comparative Study Between the Positions of the Muslim Brothers and the Jihad Groups on Violence 1938-1994]. Translated by Mandi Fahmy. Cairo, 1995. Munthe, Turi. The Saddam Hussein Reader. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 2002. Murphy, Dean E. September 11: An Oral History. New York: Doubleday, 2002. Naftali, Timothy. Blind Spot: The Secret History of American Counterterrorism. New York: Basic Books, 2005. Naguib, Sameh Khairy. "The Political Ideology of the Jihad Movement." Master's thesis, American University in Cairo, 1994. Najm, Salah, and Jamal Ismail. "Osama bin Laden: Tadmeer al-Qaeda" [Osama bin 434 Bibliography Laden: The Destruction of the Base]. Translated by Dina Ibrahim. Al-Jazeera, June 10,1999. Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. Islam: Religion, History, and Civilization. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 2003. Nasser, Khaled. "Zawjat bin Laden Tatahadath LilMajalla: Qisataho ma' Taliban wa Marath al-Kila wa Um Awad" [Bin Laden's Wife Speaks to Al-Majalla: Bin Laden's Story With the Taliban, Kidney Disease, and Um Awad]. Translated by Dina Ibrahim. Al-Majalla, March 2002, no. 1152, pp. 16-19. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. The 9/11 Commission Report. New York: Norton, 2004. Nielsen, Jorgen. Muslims in Western Europe. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1992. Nojumi, Neamatollah. The Rise of the Taliban in Afghanistan: Mass Mobilization, Civil War, and the Future of the Region. New York: Palgrave, 2002. Nutting, Antony. Nasser. New York: Dutton, 1972. Obaid, Nawaf E. The Oil Kingdom at 100: Petroleum Policymaking in Saudi Arabia. Washington, D.C.: Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2000. Oshinsky, David M. A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. New York: Macmillan, 1983. Pesce, Angelo. Jiddah: Portrait of an Arabian City. Napoli: Falcon Press, 1977. . Taif: The Summer Capital of Saudi Arabia. Jeddah: Immel Publishing, 1984. Peterson, J. E. Saudi Arabia and the Illusion of Security. New York: International Institute for Strategic Studies / Oxford University Press, 2002. Petterson, Donald. Inside Sudan: Political Islam, Conflict, and Catastrophe. Boulder, Col.: Westview, 1999. Posner, Gerald. Why America Slept: The Failure to Prevent 9/11. New York: Random House, 2003. Qutb, Sayyid. A Child from the Village. Translated, edited, and introduced by John Calvert and William E. Shephard. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 2004. . "Al-dhamir al-amrikani wa qadiat filistin." Translated by Reham al-Sherif. Al-Resala 2 (October 21,1946): 16-19. . "Amrika allati ra'ayt: fi mizan al-insaniyya." Translated by Reham al- Sherif. Al-Resala 957 (November 1951 [a]): 1245-46. . "Amrika allati ra'ayt: fi mizan al-insaniyya." Translated by Reham al- Sherif. Al-Resala 959 (November 1951 [b]): 1301-6. . "Amrika allati ra'ayt: fi mizan al-insaniyya." Translated by Reham al- Sherif. Al-Resala 961 (November 1951 [c]): 1357-60. . "Hamaim fi New York." Translated by Dina Ibrahim. Majallat al-kitab 8 (December 1949): 666-69. . In the Shade of the Qufan. Translated by Adil Salahi. Vol. 6. Leicester: Islamic Foundation, 2002. . Limadah 'azdamunee [Why Do They Execute Me?]. Translated by Amjad M. Abu Nseir. www.hanein.net/modules.php?name=News&fUe=article&sid=i62. . Milestones. Indianapolis, Ind.: American Trust Publications, 1990. Raafat, Samir W Maadi 1904-1962: Society and History in a Cairo Suburb. Cairo: Palm Press, 1994. 435 Bibliography Raphaeli, Nimrod. "Ayman Muhammed Rab'i al-Zawahiri: Inquiry and Analysis." Middle East Media Research Institute. MEMRI.org, November 26, 2001. Randal, Jonathan. Osama: The Making of a Terrorist. New York: Knopf, 2004. al-Rasheed, Madawi. A History of Saudi Arabia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Rashid, Ahmed. Taliban: The Story of the Afghan Warlords. London: Pan Books, 2000. . Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002. Raymond, André. Cairo. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000. Reed, Betsy, ed. Nothing Sacred: Women Respond to Religious Fundamentalism and Terror. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press / Nation Books, 2002. Reeve, Simon. The New jackals: Ramzi Yousef Osama bin Laden, and the Future of Terrorism. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1999. Rodenbeck, Max. Cairo: The City Victorious. New York: Knopf, 1999. Roy, Olivier. Afghanistan: From Holy War to Civil War. Princeton, N.J.: Darwin Press, 1995. Rubin, Barry. Islamic Fundamentalism in Egyptian Politics. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. , ed. Revolutionaries and Reformers: Contemporary Islamist Movements in the Middle East. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003. Rubin, Barry, and Judith Colp Rubin. Anti-American Terrorism and the Middle East: A Documentary Reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Sachar, Howard M. A History of Israel: From the Rise of Zionism to Our Time. New York: Knopf, 1996. Sageman, Marc. Understanding Terror Networks. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004. Salaah, Muhammad. "Al-Ahkam Fee Qadiat Sidqee Tasdur Ghadan al-Khamees" [The Verdict in Salah's Case Will Be Announced Tomorrow, Thursday]. Translated by May Ibrahim. Al-Hayat, March 15,1994. . Waqaï Sanawat al-Jihad: Rihlat ai-Afghan al-Arab [Years of Jihad: The Journey of the Arab-Afghans]. Translated by Mandi Fahmy. Cairo: Khuloud Publishing, 2001. Schwartz, Stephen. The Two Faces of Islam: The House ofSa'udfrom Tradition to Terror. New York: Doubleday, 2002. Shadid, Anthony. Legacy of the Prophet: Despots, Democrats, and the New Politics of Islam. Boulder, Col.: Westview, 2002. al-Shathilee, Farouk. "Juthoor al-Irhab" [The Roots of Terrorism]. Translated by May Ibrahim. Akhbar al-Hawadath, October 22,1998, no. 342, pp. 34-35. Shepard, William E. Sayyid Qutb and Islamic Activism: A Translation and Critical Analysis of Social Justice in Islam. Leiden: Brill, 1996. Simons, Geoff. Saudi Arabia: The Shape of a Client Feudalism. New York: St. Martin's, 1998. Sivan, Emmanuel. Radical Islam: Medieval Technology and Modern Politics. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1985. Smith, Dennis. Report from Ground Zero. New York: Viking, 2002. Smucker, Philip. Al-Qaeda's Great Escape: The Military and the Media on Terror's Trail. Washington, D.C.: Brassey's, 2004. Taheri, Amir. Holy Terror. London: Adler and Adler, 1987. 436 Bibliography Tanner, Stephen. Afghanistan: A Military History from Alexander the Great to the Fall of the Taliban. New York: Da Capo Press, 2002. Al-Tareeq ila 11 September [The Road to September 11]. A two-series documentary from the program Siree Lilghaya [Top Secret]. Translated by Dina Ibrahim. Al- Jazeera Satellite Channel, September 11, 2002. Teitelbaum, Joshua. Holier Than Thou: Saudi Arabia's Islamic Opposition. Washington, D.C.: Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2000. Theroux, Paul. The Pillars of Hercules: A Grand Tour of the Mediterranean. New York: Putnam, 1995. Theroux, Peter. Sandstorms: Days and Nights in Arabia. New York: Norton, 1990. Thomas E. Burnett, Sr. v. al-Baraka Investment and Development Corporation, et al, Final Third Amended Complaint. Case Number i:o2CVoi6i6 (JR) U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia, November 22, 2002. The Two Holy Mosques. Riyadh: National Offset Printing Press, 1994. Unger, Craig. House of Bush, House ofSaud. New York: Scribner, 2004. United Nations Development Programme. Regional Bureau for Arab States. Arab Human Development Report 2002: Creating Opportunities for Future Generations. 2002. Wathaaiq Hizb al-Sharee'a [Al-Sharee'a Party's Documents]. Translated by Dina Ibrahim. Cairo: Markaz Yafa Lildirasat wa al-Abhath, 2000. Weaver, Mary Anne. A Portrait of Egypt: A Journey Through the World of Militant Islam. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1999. Weiss, Murray. The Man Who Warned America: The Life and Death of John O'Neill, the FBI's Embattled Countertenor Warrior. New York: Regan Books, 2003. White, E. B. Here Is New York. New York: Little Bookroom, 1999. Wiktorowicz, Quintan. "The New Global Threat: Transnational Salafis and Jihad." Middle East Policy 8, no. 4 (December 2001). , and John Kaltner. "Killing in the Name of Islam: Al-Qaeda's Justification for September 11." Middle East Policy Council Journal 10, no. 2 (Summer 2003). Woodward, Bob. The Commanders. New York: Touchstone, 1991. Wright, Lawrence. "The Counterterrorist." New Yorker, January 14,2002. . "Kingdom of Silence." New Yorker, January 5,2004. . "The Man Behind bin Laden." New Yorker, September 16,2002. Yamani, Hani A. Z. To Be a Saudi. London: Janus, 1997. Yousaf, Mohammad, and Mark Adkin, The Bear Trap: Afghanistan's Untold Story. London: Leo Cooper, 1992. Zaidan, Muwafak Ahmad. Bin Laden Bila Qina' [Bin Laden Unmasked]. Translated by Nidal Daraiseh. Beirut: Al-Sharika al-Alamiyya Lilkitab, 2003. . "Al-Natiq Alrasmee bi Ism Tala'I al-fath Ya'tarif BiMuhawalat Ightiyyal Ghali [The Official Spokesman for Fath Admits the Group Attempted to Assassinate Ghali]. Translated by Dina Ibrahim. Al-Hayat, May 15, 1994, no. 1135, p. 6. Zaki, Muhammad Zaki. "Al-Zawahiri Kana Zameelee Fee al-Madrasa" [Al- Zawahiri Was My Classmate in School]. Translated by Mandi Fahmy. Akhir Sa'ah, October 2001, no. 3495, pp. 10-12. Zarie, Mohammed. In Defense of Prisoners' Rights: HRCAP Reports from 1997 to 2000. Cairo: Human Rights Center for the Assistance of Prisoners, 1997. al-Zawahiri, Ayman. Fursan Taht Rayah al-Nabi [Knights Under the Prophet's Ban- 437 Bibliography ner]. Translated by Amjad M. Abu Nseir. Casablanca: Dar-al-Najaah al- Jadeedah, 2001. . Al-Hasad al-Murr: al-Ikhwan al-Muslimonn Fee Sitoon [Bitter Harvest: The Muslim Brothers in Sixty Years]. Translated by Mandi Fahmy. Dar al-Bayariq. No city no date. . "Knights Under the Prophet's Banner." Translated by FBIS. Al-Sharq al- Awsat, December 2-12, 2001. "Al-Zawahiri Yarud 'Ala Bush Bibayan Khasa bihee Filisteen" [Al-Zawahiri Responds to Bush in a Statement Specific on Palestine]. Translated by Amjad M. Abu Nseir. Al-Jazeera Satellite Channel, www.aljazeera.net/news/asia/ 2001/11/11-10-3.htm. al-Zayyat, Montassir. Al-Jamaat al-Islamiyya: Nathra Dakhiliyah [Islamic Groups: An Internal View]. Translated by Amjad M. Abu Nseir. Al-Hayat, January 10-14, 2005. . Ayman al-Zawahiri Kama 'Araftahoo [Ayman al-Zawahiri as I Knew Him]. Translated by Amjad M. Abu Nseir. Cairo: Dar Misr al-Mahroosa, 2002. . The Road to al-Qaeda: The Story of bin Laden's Right-Hand Man. London: Pluto Press, 2004. 438
Nicholas Abbott Abdelaziz Osman Abdelaziz Tourabi Abdellah Genieve Abdo Khaled S. Abu Rashid Hafez Abu Saada Victor Abu Said Asma Afsaruddin Iftikhar Ahmad Ali al-Ahmed Reem Akkad Abu Ala-Mady Alaweed bin Talal Mohammed Alawwan Hamid Algar Mirza Ali Mohammed Jasim el-Ali Bassim A. Alim Mohammed Alim Tariq Ali Alireza Fouad Allam Jeff Allen Graham Allison Rogelio Alonzo Abdel Monem Said Aly Faiza Salah Ambah Michael Ameen Jr. Abdullah Anas Frank Anderson Lars Erslev Anderson Sami Angawi John M. Anticev Michael Anticev R. Scott Appleby Gustavo de Aristegui Grant Ashley Saad Asswailim Ghazi Salah Eddin Atabani Abdel Bari Atwan Gerald L. Auerbach Juan Avilés Mohammed Saleem al-Awa Mohsin al-Awaji Mohammed al-Awwam Hussein al-Aydi Javed Aziz Sahar Aziz Talal bin Abdul Aziz Mahfouz Azzam Maha Azzam Omar Mahfouz Azzam Nadia ba-Ashen Yahia Hussein Babiker Ahmed M. Badeeb Saeed Badeeb Robert Baer Omar Bagour Faisel Bajaber Ramesh Balon Gamal al-Banna Shmuel Bar Tom Barfield Michael Barrett Hasan Basweid Khaled Batarfi Faisal Batewil 439 Author Interviews Mohammed Loay Baizid Milt Bearden Waquih Bector Mohammed bin Nasser Belfas Harlen L. Bell Daniel Benjamin Robert Bentley Peter L. Bergen Sandy Berger James Bernazzani, Jr. Khaled al-Berri Abdullah M. Binladen Saleh M. Binladen Mohammed A. bin Mahfooz Sultan bin Salman Alaweed bin Talal Ghazi Faisal Binzagr Jochen Bittner Robert Blitzer Philip Bobbitt Waguih Boctor Barbara Bodine Steven A. Bongardt Arnaud de Borchgrave Theron Bouman H. Braxton Jean-Charles Brisard Peter T. R. Brooks Rachel Bronson Jean-Louis Bruguiere Ihsan Ali bu-Hulaiga Paul Busick Malik A. Ruiz Callejas Robert Callus John Calvert Greg Campbell Antonio Canizares Vincent Cannistraro Joseph Cantemessa Yigal Carmon Timothy Carney Jacobo Teijelo Casanova Sharon Chadha David Chambers Robert Chambers Gary Chapman Françoise Chipaux Frank Cilluffo Richard A. Clarke Jack Cloonan Ray Close Charles Cogan Daniel J. Coleman Denis Collins Elizabeth O. Colton John Cooley Thomas F. Corrigan Dina Corsi Juan Cotino Roger Cressey Dominik Cziesche Pasquale D'Amuro Saeb Dajani Thomas G. Donlon Essam Deraz Aida Self el-Dawla Sarah al-Deeb Agustin Diaz Anna DiBattista Tom Dillon Teodoro Gômez Domînguez Kevin Donovan Joseph Doorley Mary Deborah Doran Eleanor Doumato Joshua L. Dratel Abdel Aziz al-Dukheil Carson Dunbar Charles Dunbar Joseph Dunne Elizabeth Durkee Jack Eckenroad Mohamed Salah Eddin R. P. Eddy Mohamed al-Edrisi Paul Eedle Abdel Wahab el-Effendi Michael E. Eisner Steven Emerson Javier Jordan Enamorado Elfatih Erwa Emilio Lamo de Espinosa Essam el-Eryan John Esposito 440 Author Interviews KhaledAbouel-Fadl Abdulaziz H. Fahad Mandi Fahmy Amr Mohamed al-Faisal Reem al-Faisal Saud al-Faisal Turki al-Faisal Mahmoun Fandy Saad al-Faqih Juan Avilés Farré Jamil Farsi Najla Fathi Haizam Amirah Fernandez Elizabeth Fernia Robert Fernia Al Finch Walid A. Fitaihi Patrick Fitzgerald Peggy A. Ford Yosri Fouda Wyche Fowler Charles E. Frahm Stephen Franklin Louis J. Freeh Alan Fry Graham Fuller Abdel Moneim Abdel Futuh Neal Gallagher Mary E. Galligan Kathy Gannon Antonio Maldonado Garcia Benigno Pendâs Garcia Enrique Garcia Mike Garcia Paul Garmirian Diego Lopez Garrido Baltazar Garzôn Stephen J. Gaudin F Gregory Gause III Fawaz Gerges Hussein Abdel Ghani Kevin P. Giblin Hao Gilbertson Heather Gregg Klaus Griinewald Stanley Guess Hosnya Guindy Hamid Gul Rohan Gunaratna Lou Gunn Allan P. Haber Kamal al-Sayyid Habib Herb Haddad Deborah Hadwell Sayeed Abdul Hafez Mohammed M. Hafez Ali el-Haj Lisa Gordon Haggerty Abdul Rahman Haggog Berhan Hailu Yousef A. al-Hamdan Khaled al-Hammadi Andrew Hammond Hussein Haqqani Hasan al-Harithi Mamdouh al-Harithi Mohamed Haroun Elias Harfouche Peter Harrigan Tom Hartwell Saad Hasaballah Khalid Hasan Janullah Hashimzada Badreldin Hassan Hamza al-Hassan Sulaiman al-Hatlan Suliman Hathout Hasan Hatrash Jerome Hauer Thomas Hegghammer Kamal Helbawy Clement Henry Neil Herman Ibrahim Hilal Michael Hingson Frank Hodgkins Bruce Hoffman Tariq al-Homayed Ibrahim Hooper Fahmi Howeidi Steven Hughes Mohammed I. al-Hulwah Malik Hussein Len Hutton 4 41 Author Interviews Hussein Ibish Abdel Wahab Ibrahim Dina Ibrahim Saad Eddin Ibrahim Bob Inman Ibrahim Insari José Maria Irujo Christopher Isham Farraj Ismail Jamal Ismail Mamdouh Ismail Mahnaz Ispahani Edward Jajko Ali A. Jalali Kevin James Valerie James Edward Jeep Josef Joffe Chris Johnson Keith Johnson Rocio Millân Johnson Robert Jordan Adl al-Jubair Nail al-Jubair James K. Kallstrom Salah Abd al-Kareem Hisham Kassem Mahmoud Kassem Theodore Kattouf Rita Katz Elaine Kaufman Joseph Kechichian David Kelley Gilles Kepel Abdul Rahman Khadr Zaynab Ahmed Khadr Jamal Khalifa AshrafKhalil Imran Khan Ismail Khan Javed Aziz Khan Jamal Ahmad Khashoggi Khalid Khawaja Mohammed al-Khereiji Ramzi Khouri Kathryn Kilgore Daniel Kimmage Judith Kipper Kirk Kjeldsen Bernard Kleinman Bassma Kodmani Evan Kohlmann Michael Kortan May Kutbi Ben Kuth Robert Lacey Stéphane Lacroix Donna Lee Lakin Frank Lakin Salah Lamei Ted Landreth Thomas F. Lang Mohamed abd al-Latif Fernando Lâzaro Rodney Leibowitz Eric Lewis Richard Lind James Lindley John Lipka John J. Liguori David Long Bernabe Lopez Garcia Douglas MacEachin Petros Mâchas Dittmar Machele Khaled al-Maeena Naguib Mahfouz Wissal al-Mahdi Saddiq al-Mahdi Abdulaziz I. al-Mana Abd al-Haleem Mandour Jay C. Manning Manuela Marin Saad M. Mariq Jonathan Marshall Bobby Martin Georg Mascolo Rihab M. Massoud Barry Mawn Kenneth J. Maxwell Ernest May Andrew McCarthy Pete McCloskey Jr. Ken McConnellogue 442 Author Interviews Janet McElligot Robert McFadden John McKillop Jaime McLendon Frances Meade Richard A Meade Dominic Medley Amin el-Mehdi Roel Meijer Moneir Mahmoud Aly el-Messery Cordula Meyer John J. Miller Marty Miller John Mintz Hamid Mir Mustafa al-Mirabet Hafez al-Mirazi Assaf Moghadem Mohammed el-Affi Mohammed Rustam Shah Mohmand Abdul Mohsin Mosallam Rashid al-Mubarek Ursulla Mueller Manfred Murck Kim Murphy Richard Murphy Virginia Murr Ali al-Musa Izzud-din Omar Musa Khaled Musa Mustapha el-M'Rabet Ibrahim Nafie Timothy Naftali Hani Nagshabandi Adil Najam Louis A. Napoli Octavia E. Nasr Dona Abdel Nasser Sami Saleh Nawar Hisham Nazer Sanna Negus Soraya Sarhaddi Nelson Salameh Nematt Petter Nesser Tim Niblock Monsour al-Njadan Yusuf Mohammed Noorwali M. Arif Noorzai Essam Noweira Ayman Nur Christine O'Neill J. P. O'Neill Hugh O'Rourke Nawaf Obaid Mohammed S. al-Odadi Hassabulla Omer Fathi Osman George Pagoulatis Emiliano Burdiel Pascual Reuven Paz Ami Pedahzur Gareth Peirce Francis J. Pellegrino Benigno Pendâs Ramôn Pérez-Maura Thomas J. Pickard William Ryan Plunkett Javier Pogalan Josh Pollack Florentino Portero Joachim Preuss Jim Quilty Mohammed Qutb Khaled Rabah Samir Rafaat Nimrod Rafaeli Abdullah Omar Abdul Rahman Ahmed Abdul Rahman Bahran Rahman Osama Rajkhan David C. Rapoport Madawi al-Rasheed Abdel Rahman al-Rashid Mohamed Rashid Diaa Rashwan Ross Reiss Jim Rhody Hamid bin Ahmed al-Rifai Lawrence K. Robinson Jorge Rodriguez Michael A. Rolince Ken Rosenthal James J. Rossini Mark T. Rossini 443 Author Interviews Jim Roth Olivier Roy Michael Rubin William Rugh Usama Rushdi Jeanne Ryan Hafez Abu Saada Mahmoud Sabit Abdul Rahman al-Saeed Marc Sageman Muhammed Salaah Salama Ahmed Salama Ali Salem Ysura Salim Mohammed Salmawy Maha Elsamneh Bob Sama Mujahid M. al-Sawwaf Mohammed Sayed Tayib Michael Scheuer Lewis Schiliro Abdallah Schleifer Yoram Schweitzer Deborah Scroggins Abdul Aziz al-Sebail Mohammed el-Shafey Restum Shah Rafiq Shaheed Emad Eldeen Shahin Mohammed Ali AI al-Shaikh Said al-Shaikh Ron Shapiro Mohammed A. al-Sharif Michael Sheehan Abdullah al-Shehri Virginia Sherry Aziz Shihab Myrna Shinbaum David Shinn Ekram Shinwari Allen Shivers Hussein Shobokshi Mohammed Shoukany Mahmoud Shukri Asma Siddiki Mazhar Siddiqi Sabahat Siddiqi Hani al-Siba'iy Steven Simon Yassir el-Sirri Marvin Smilon Philip Smucker Ibrahim al-Sonousi Ali H. Soufan Jesper Stein Guido Steinberg Jessica Stern Mary Lynn Stevens Raymond Stock Dominic Streatfeild Abdullah Subhi Ghassan al-Sulaiman Gamal Sultan Joseph Szlavik Jr. Michael Taarnby Nahed M. Taher Azzam Tamimi Lorraine di Taranto Mohamed Saeed Tayeb Jacobo Teijello Joshua Teitelbaum Peter Theroux Omar Toor Aldo J. Tos Owais Towhid Greg Treverton Robert Tucker Matthew Tueller Hassan al-Turabi Issam Eldin al-Turabi Thomas Twetten Abu Ubeida Joe Valiquette Reuben Vêlez Lorenzo Vidino Bob Walsh Janet Waters Eric Watkins Dale Watson William F. Wechsler Gabriel Weimann Benjamin Weiser Michael Welsh Jeff Wharton 444 Author Interviews John V. Whitbeck Mary Jo White Wayne White Robert Whithead Larry Whittington Quintan Wiktorowicz Gina Abercrombie-Winstanley Kelly Wojda Wesley Wong Hani Yamani Mai Yamani Hassan Yassin Yehia J. Yehia Khaled Yusuf Rahimullah Yusufzai Mark Zaid Ali Zaki Ezzat Zaki Zaki Mohammed Zaki Heba al-Zawahiri Montasser al-Zayat Ahmad Muaffaq Zaidan Mohammed Zohair Abdou Zuma 445
AKNOWLEDGMENTS AND NOTES ON SOURCES Edit
LIES AND DECEPTION always pose a problem to a journalist who is trying to construct a truthful narrative, and in a project that largely relies on interviews with jihadis and intelligence operatives, the reader can suppose that there is a danger in placing too much trust in such sources. To complicate matters further, the early scholarship on the subject of al-Qaeda and the personalities that populate it was often shoddy and misleading. The Arabic press, which is essential to a chronicler of the lives of Zawahiri and bin Laden, is bridled by the autocratic governments in the region. Nor can one put too much faith in sworn testimony by witnesses who have already proved themselves to be crooks, liars, and double agents. How, then, does the writer choose which story to tell among so many conflicting and untrustworthy accounts? Fortunately, some useful documents have surfaced in the five years since 9/11 that provide a reference for journalists who are looking for solid footing. Particularly helpful are "Tareek Osama" (the history of Osama), a collection of memos, letters, and notes that were taken from an al-Qaeda computer captured in Bosnia and entered into evidence in United States v. Enaam Arnout; a trove of e-mails and other correspondence that Wall Street Journal reporter Alan Cullison fortuitously acquired when he purchased what turned out to be a looted al-Qaeda computer in Kabul; and the important official papers of al-Qaeda, including its constitution and bylaws, many of which were gathered by the United States Department of Defense after the war in Afghanistan and form what is called the Harmony Documents. These items provide a bedrock of reliable information that can be useful in testing the trustworthiness of other sources. Even these valuable materials can be misleading, however. For instance, the handwritten notes in "Tareek Osama" that record the critical meeting on August 11,1988, when the term al-Qaeda first surfaces, give us a peek at what appears to be the moment of creation. As such, it is an essential scene in my narrative. However, the English translation that was provided to the court is often confounding. "I see that we should think in the origin of the idea we came for from the beginning," it says early on. "All this to start a new fruit from below zero." A better translation of this passage would be: "We should focus on the idea that brought us here in the first place. All this to start a new project from scratch." According to the document, the secretary who recorded these notes was bin Laden's friend Abu 447 Acknowledgments and Notes on Sources Rida al-Suri (Mohammed Loay Baizid), but when I interviewed him in Khartoum, he denied that he was even in Afghanistan or Pakistan in 1988.1 don't know the truth of his assertion, but his name is on the document. Wa'el Julaidan, who refused to talk to me face-to-face, was in this meeting, and he agreed to answer my questions through an intermediary. He provided the surprising information that it was Abdullah Azzam who called it in the first place; he also gave me the names of the participants and described a vote that was taken at the end of the meeting on the formation of al-Qaeda. None of that is in the court documents. Medani al- Tayeb, who was al-Qaeda's treasurer, told me through an intermediary that the organization had already been formed before the August 11 meeting—he had joined the previous May—so the vote appears to have formalized the creation of an organization that already existed underground. I believe that the reader can begin to appreciate the murky nature of the world in which al-Qaeda operates and the imperfect means I have sometimes employed in order to gain information. Similarly, I have had to compromise on reporting things I believe to be true but cannot prove. One tantalizing example is the fact that Prince Turki disclosed to the Associated Press on October 17, 2003, that as head of Saudi intelligence he had personally provided the names of two of the eventual September 11 hijackers, Nawaf al-Hazmi and Khaled al-Mihdhar, to the CIA in late 1999 or early 2000. "What we told them was these people were on our watch list from previous activities of al-Qaeda, in both the embassy bombings and attempts to smuggle arms into the kingdom in 1997," Turki said at the time. This would explain the CIA's sudden interest in those men around the date of the meeting in Malaysia of the hijackers and the USS Cole bombers. The CIA furiously rejected Turki's comments, and the Saudi ambassador to the United States, Prince Bandar bin Sultan, clarified his cousin's statement by saying that there were "no documents" sent by Saudi Arabia regarding the hijackers to American intelligence. At the time, Turki stood by his statement, maintaining that he had passed the information, at least orally. I had confirmation of his claim from Nawaf Obaid, a security consultant for the Saudi government, who told me that the names of the future hijackers were given to the CIA's chief of station in Riyadh. Now, however, Turki, who has replaced Bandar at the Saudi embassy in Washington, says that, after reviewing his notes, he was wrong; he himself never gave information about any hijackers to the Americans. Because of his outright denial, I removed this version of the story from the text. I cite it here to address the questions that might pose themselves to readers who know about this episode, and also to acknowledge the crosscurrents of politics and diplomacy that sometimes pull the real story, whatever it may be, frustratingly out of reach. The reporting of this book has required constant checking of hundreds of sources against each other, and it is in this back-and-forth inquiry that the approximate truth—the most reliable facts—can be found. One might call this horizontal reporting, since it takes into account the views of as many participants as are willing to talk. Although the list is long, it is certainly not complete. There are key people in the American intelligence community, particularly in the CIA, who declined to meet with me; moreover, many of the best sources in al-Qaeda are being held by American authorities, not only secretly but also in U.S. prisons, where they are kept apart from any contact with the press, despite my pleas to 448 Acknowledgments and Notes on Sources their wardens and the judges in their cases. A full history of al-Qaeda cannot be told until they are allowed to talk. There is another axis of reporting, a vertical one, that has more to do with understanding than with simple facts. Some of the people in this book I have interviewed in depth dozens of times. Invariably, the most profitable conversations are ones that come after a degree of trust has developed between the journalist and his source. This relationship is fraught with problems, since trust and friendship go hand in hand. Knowledge is seductive; the reporter wants to know, and the more he knows, the more interesting he becomes to the source. There are few forces in human nature more powerful than the desire to be understood; journalism couldn't exist without it. But the intimacy that comes with sharing secrets and unburdening profound feelings invites a reciprocal degree of friendly protection that a reporter cannot always offer. By the conspicuous use of a tape recorder and extensive note-taking, I try to remind both of us that there is a third party in the room, the eventual reader. I have strained to keep the use of anonymous sources to a minimum. As a reader, I often question the reliability of unsourced information, and so I've dragged as many of my informants into the light as possible. Some sources habitually start an interview by saying it is off the record, but they may later approve specific quotes or intelligence when asked. Where there remain items that are not tied to specific individuals or documents, they represent vital information that I have good reason to accept as true. THIS BOOK comes heavily mortgaged to the generosity of hundreds of people. Although I can never repay their kindness, I hope they will feel that I have honored their trust. Sayyid Qutb may have been miserable in Greeley, Colorado, but he did not have the advantage of meeting Peggy A. Ford, the archives and research coordinator at the City of Greeley Museum, or Janet Waters, the head of archival services at the James A. Michener Library of the University of Northern Colorado, who made themselves and their useful files available. Ken McConnellogue, the vice president for university advancement at the same institution, graciously provided vital background information; and Michael Welsh, a professor of history, took me around the campus and the town and gave me such an insightful and delightful tour that I came away envying his students. Foreign correspondents rely on "fixers" to guide them through cultures they barely understand. Fixers make appointments, translate, and often provide context that a stranger could never grasp on his own. In Cairo, I was especially blessed by the delightful company of Mandi Fahmy, as well as Rola Mahmoud and Jailan Zayan. Samir Rafaat was an invaluable escort into the Maadi childhood of Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri. I am deeply indebted to Mahfouz Azzam and Omar Azzam for their patient and gracious responses to my endless queries. Gamal al-Banna and Essam el-Eryan provided invaluable insights on the Muslim Brotherhood, and Kamal Habib was highly informative about the origins of al-Jihad. Mamdouh Ismail, Gamal Sultan, and Montassir al-Zayyat were indispensable informants on Islamic movements, and Fouad Allam helped me understand the government's 449 Acknowledgments and Notes on Sources response to the challenges such organizations posed. Abdallah Schleifer was a source of great insight and amusement, and a surprisingly fine cook to boot. Saad Eddin Ibrahim, fresh from prison and still suffering the effects of that ordeal, was kind enough to give me the benefit of his invaluable research. For their friendship and hospitality, I particularly thank Jan and Safwat Montassir, Sanna Hannonen Negus, Dr. Abdul Wahab Ibrahim and Aida el-Bermawy, Raymond Stock, Jim Pringle and Samia el-Bermawy, Essam Deraz, Ali Salem, and my old professor Dr. Yehia el-Ezabi. I spent more than a year after 9/11 seeking a visa from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Finally, realizing that I wasn't going to get in as a reporter, I took a job "mentoring" young reporters at the Saudi Gazette in Jeddah, bin Laden's hometown. This serendipitous ploy permitted me an understanding of Saudi society that I could never have gained from the journalist's lofty vantage. For that, I have to thank Dr. Ahmed al-Yousef, the editor in chief; Dr. Mohammed Shoukany, the editor who invited me into his newsroom in the first place; and my colleagues Iftikar Ahmed, Ramesh Balon, Ramzi Khouri, and Mazhar Siddiqi. My greatest teachers, however, were my reporters: Faisal Bajaber, Hasan Basweid, Najla Fathi, Mamdouh al-Harithi, Hasan Hatrash, Mohammed Zoheb Patel, Mahmoud Shukri, and Sabahat Siddiqi. I owe a great debt to the generous spirits of Faiza Ambah, Elizabeth O. Colton, Dr. Khaled Batarfi, Berhan Hailu, Peter Harrigan, Jamal Khalifa, Jamal Khashoggi, Khaled al-Maeena, Dr. Abdullah al-Shehri, Hussein Shobokshi, and Gina Abercrombie-Winstanley, who made my journeys to the Kingdom both productive and enjoyable. In Pakistan, I shamelessly milked my colleagues for their experiences in covering the jihad. I thank Kathy Gannon of Associated Press, Françoise Chipaux at Le Monde, Jamal Ismail at Abu Dhabi television, Ismail Khan at Dawn, Rahimullah Yusufzai at the News of Islamabad, and Ahmed Muaffaq Zaidan at al-Jazeera. Mahnaz Ispahani provided a very useful overview of the country and some invaluable sources as well. Despite the vast difference that separated our views of the world, Khaled Khawaja went to great lengths to help me understand his perspective. I am particularly indebted to Zaynab Ahmed Khadr for sharing her intimate memories of life in the al-Qaeda community during our many conversations in Pakistan and Canada. Bahram Rahman guided me through Afghanistan, and his company was always a pleasure. I think I still owe Dominic Medley a drink at the Hotel Mustafa. Issam Eldin al-Turabi was a very entertaining and enlightening host during my several trips to Sudan. I'm also grateful to Mohammed Loay Baizid for entrusting me with his recollections, and to Hassabulla Omer for candidly discussing the dilemma bin Laden posed to Sudanese intelligence. Georg Mascolo and his investigative team at Der Spiegel did first-rate work uncovering the secret life of the Hamburg cell. Georg lent me one of his finest reporters, Cordula Meyer, to be my guide during my time in Hamburg, and I depended on her insights for my portrait of the hijackers in Germany. I am also grateful to Dr. Guido Steinberg in Berlin, the former head of counterterrorism for the chancellor's office, whose expertise on terrorism helped shape my understanding. In Spain, I was assisted by Rocio Millân Johnson, an enterprising reporter and a wonderful spirit. I am also grateful to Emilio Lamo de Espinosa and Haizam Amirah Fernandez of the Real Instituto Elcano. Gustavo de Aristegui was a chal- 450 Acknowledgments and Notes on Sources lenging intellectual companion during my time in Madrid. Juan Cotino, Enrique Garcia, Emiliano Burdiel Pascual, and Teodoro Gomez Dominguez of the national police were extremely accommodating. I also want to acknowledge my colleagues: Fernando Lâzaro at El Mundo, José Maria Irujo at El Pais, Ramon Perez Maura at ABC, and especially Keith Johnson at the Wall Street Journal, each of whom generously helped me with sources and information. The first time I went to interview Gilles Kepel, professor of Middle East Studies at the Institute for Political Studies in Paris, he asked me to teach his class instead. It turned out to be the best introduction to a man whose groundbreaking work on Islamism in Egypt has shaped the scholarship of this movement. His students are a powerful and enduring reflection of his influence. I am also very much indebted to the hospitality of my former editor at The New Yorker, Lee Aitken, and to my friends Christopher and Carol Dickey, who made my trips to Paris so much more enjoyable than they would have been without their delightful company. Olivier Roy, a profound scholar, was kind enough to share his thoughts with me on several occasions; and the courageous counterterrorism judge Jean-Louis Bruguière gave me the benefit of his unique understanding of al-Qaeda. London is a special stop for any reporter interested in Islamism and jihad. Some of my best sources have been granted political asylum, and they willingly talked to me despite the threat that their status might be changed at any time. I'm particularly thankful to Yassir el-Sirri, Usama Rushdi, and Hani el-Siba'iy. Abdullah Anas and Kemal Helbawi were great friends to me during my visits and made important contributions to my understanding of the Arab Afghan experience. Alan Fry of Scotland Yard shared the British counterterrorist perspective with me. Yosri Fouda, the star reporter for al-Jazeera, was a welcome companion on several very memorable evenings. Abdul Rahman al-Rashid, the former editor of Al-Sharq al-Awsat, was a generous informant, and his successor in that chair, Tariq al-Homayed, has been a kindred spirit since we first met in Jeddah. I want to pay especial tribute to Mohammed el-Shafey, a great reporter who has covered terrorism and radical Islam for years at Al-Sharq al-Awsat. Many thanks to him for his kindness. I owe a particular debt to Richard A. Clarke, who was a very patient tutor in the ways of Washington. At the FBI, I will always appreciate the candor of the members of the I-49 squad, especially Jack Cloonan, Daniel Coleman, Mark Rossini, and Ali Soufan, each of whom I interviewed countless times. Without them, there would be no book, it's that simple. Pascuale D'Amuro made sure that the New York office was open to me, and for his trust, I am deeply grateful. Joe Valiquette and Jim Margolin assisted me by arranging interviews that often went on long after the offices closed. At headquarters, I would like to thank John Miller, Michael Kortan, and Angela Bell, who were very helpful in setting up interviews and providing information. Michael Scheuer was a candid guide to the culture of Alec Station and the CIA. His scholarship on bin Laden and al-Qaeda are unsurpassed. There are other people in the American intelligence community I cannot name who have been extremely helpful. Three women—Anna DiBattista, Valerie James, and Mary Lynn Stevens— shared their often painful memories of John O'Neill, and I was privileged to be entrusted with their stories. Languages naturally posed a barrier, so I would like to thank the translators that 4 5 1 Acknowledgments and Notes on Sources I have hired all over the world. In Arabic: my former assistant Dina Ibrahim was absolutely invaluable, not just because of her skillful translation; also Dina's sister May, and on occasion their mother Aida; my Arabic instructor, Amjad M. Abu Nseir; Jilan Kamel; Nidal Daraiseh, another valued assistant; and Reham al-Sharif in Cairo. In German: Ralf Jaeger and Chester Rosson. In French and Italian: Caroline Wright. In Spanish: Rocio Millân Johnson, Frank Hodgkins, and Major Edward Jeep. Portions of this book appeared in The New Yorker; indeed, this project began on September 11, 2001, when I asked the editor, David Remnick, to put me to work. Since then I have had the benefit of that magazine's exacting editorial assistance. Jeffrey Frank, Charles Michener, and Daniel Zalewski have each handled articles that contribute to the final product. I am always indebted to The New Yorker's factcheckers, my favorite department of the magazine, which is overseen by Peter Canby. Checkers who have assisted me on this project include Gita Daneshjoo, Boris Fishman, Jacob Goldstein, Marina Harss, Austin Kelley, Nandi Rodrigo, Andy Young, and particularly Nana Asfour, who also served as the Arabic translator for several important interviews. I owe a huge debt to Natasha Lunn, the magazine's photo editor, who drew together many of the images that have been included in this book. Many people assisted in getting me visas or access to people that I could never have approached on my own. Janet McElligot and Milt Bearden were extremely kind in this regard. In addition to helping to shape the ideas for this book, Elizabeth Fernea actually found me the job in Saudi Arabia. Her contribution is apparent all through this work. There is a small group of private scholars whose work on terrorism has been of great assistance to journalists, and I want to thank Rita Katz and the SITE Institute, Steven Emerson and Lorenzo Vidino of the Investigative Project, and Evan F. Kohlmann for making materials available from their collections. I'm also indebted to Michael Eisner at the Motley Rice law firm, who generously let me prowl through their impressive archive. Karen Greenburg and the staff of the Center on Law and Security at the New York University School of Law have provided an intellectual testing ground for many of the ideas explored in this book. I am fortunate to be a part of a virtual community, Gulf 2000, created by Gary Sick, adjunct professor of international affairs and the former director of the Middle East Institute at Columbia University. G2K, as its members call it, has proved to be an absolutely invaluable resource of scholarship and shared ideas. Journalists count on each other even when they are competing. In addition to the colleagues I've already mentioned, I would particularly like to acknowledge the assistance of CNN's terrorism analyst, Peter L. Bergen, John Burnett with National Public Radio, Chris Isham of ABC News, Stephen Franklin at the Chicago Tribune, Jonathan Ledgard at The Economist, and Philip Smucker at Time, each of whom gave me the benefit of their greater experience and many valuable contacts. They are courageous souls and valued friends. Kirk Kjeldsen, who on 9/11 was a reporter for Waters magazine, happened to be late for a meeting in the World Trade Center that morning, and because he fell asleep on the subway he survived to tell me his story, which became a part of The New Yorker's now-famous black issue of September 24, 2001. Kirk also did me the 452 Acknowledgments and Notes on Sources favor, as a colleague, of attending John O'Neill's memorial service and interviewing some of O'Neill's friends and coworkers on that occasion. Will Haber gave me valued assistance, as did Mona Abdel-Halim, who has become a trusted sounding board. Jan Mclnroy has been my preferred copy editor for many years, and I always count on her judgment. I am especially reliant on Nora Ankrum, who helped me organize the mass of information into fourteen boxes of note cards. Her cheerful presence lightened this sometimes daunting task. I owe a special debt to Stephen Harrigan and Gregory Curtis, dear friends, who read the book in its rawest form and made extremely helpful suggestions. It was Steve who suggested writing this book in the first place. Peter Bergen, Rachel Bronson, John Calvert, Steve Coll, Mary Deborah Doran, Thomas Hegghammer, Michael Rolince, Marc Sageman, and Michael Welsh read all or portions of the book and gave me the benefit of their expertise. The errors that remain in the book are my responsibility, but there are fewer of them thanks to the generosity of these patient readers. My friend and agent, Wendy Weil, campaigned for this project; fortunately, Ann Close, who edited three of my previous books, reunited with me on this one. I am grateful to have my team back together! My wife, Roberta, supported my decision to do this book, although it meant that we were apart for much of the nearly five years that it has taken to accomplish. I'm so happy to be home. 453
Organized by page for clarity; actual insert does not include page numbers. Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following for permission to reprint photographs: page 1: Sayyid Qutb with Colorado State College president: Michener Library, University of Northern Colorado. Aerial view of Greeley, Colorado: Greeley Museum. Qutb on trial: al-Ahram page 2: Zawahiri as a child: the Azzam family, AFP /HO /Al-Hayat. Zawahiri in medical school: the Azzam family, AFP/Getty page 3: Prisoners on trial: AP. Sheikh Omar Abdul Rahman: Aladin Abdel/ Reuters/Corbis. Zawahiri on trial: Getty page 4: Mohammed bin Laden with Prince Talal in the Grand Mosque: courtesy of Prince Talal. Mohammed bin Laden and King Faisal: courtesy Saudi Binladin Group. Grand Mosque: Abbas/Magnum. Juhayman al-Oteibi: courtesy of Saudi Embassy page 5: Jamal Khalifa: author's collection. Osama bin Laden's first house in Jeddah: author's collection. Osama bin Laden's second house in Jeddah: author's collection; page 6: Abdullah Azzam: courtesy of Abdullah Anas. Young Osama bin Laden: EPA/Corbis. Azzam and Massoud: cournntesy of Abdullah Anas page 7: General Hamid Gul: author's collection. Prince Turki: Corbis. Prince Turki negotiating among warring mujahideen: courtesy of Jamal Khashoggi page 8: World Trade Center: Getty. Ramzi Yousef: courtesy of the FBI page 9: Hasan al-Turabi: author's collection. Osama bin Laden: courtesy of Scott MacLeod. Osama bin Laden's mosque: author's collection page 10: Osama bin Laden with gun: AFP/Getty. Taliban fighter on tank: Sayed Salahuddin/ Reuters /Corbis page 11: Bin Laden and Zawahiri at a press conference: CNN via Getty. Dar-ul- Aman Palace ruins: author's collection page 12: Ruins of the American Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya: Reuters. Ruins of the American Embassy in Tanzania: courtesy of the FBI. Pharmaceutical plant ruins: author's collection page 23: USS Cole: Getty. Michael Scheuer: AP. Richard Clarke: AP page 14: Valerie James and John O'Neill: courtesy of Valerie James. Mary Lynn Stevens and John O'Neill: courtesy of Mary Lynn Stevens. Anna DiBattista and John O'Neill: courtesy of Anna DiBattista page 15: John O'Neill and Daniel Coleman: courtesy of Daniel Coleman. Ruins of bin Laden's hideout in Afghanistan: courtesy of the FBI. John O'Neill's mother and wife at his funeral: AP page 16: World Trade Center ruins: Hale Gurland/Contact Press Images