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, 20th hijacker Wikipedia

Within hours of the attacks, the FBI was able to determine the names and in many cases the personal details of the suspected pilots and hijackers.[1][2] Mohamed Atta, from Egypt, was the ringleader of the 19 hijackers and one of the pilots.[3] Atta died in the attack along with the other hijackers, but his luggage, which did not make the connection from his Portland flight onto Flight 11, contained papers that revealed the identity of all 19 hijackers (all men), and other important clues about their plans, motives, and backgrounds.[4] By midday, the National Security Agency had intercepted communications that pointed to Osama bin Laden, as did German intelligence agencies.[5][6]

On September 27, 2001, the FBI released photos of the 19 hijackers, along with information about the possible nationalities and aliases of many.[7] Fifteen of the hijackers were from Saudi Arabia, two from the United Arab Emirates, one from Egypt (Atta), and one from Lebanon.[8]

The FBI investigation into the attacks, code named operation PENTTBOM, was the largest and most complex investigation in the history of the FBI, involving over 7,000 special agents.[9] The United States government determined that al-Qaeda, headed by Osama bin Laden, bore responsibility for the attacks, with the FBI stating "evidence linking al-Qaeda and bin Laden to the attacks of September 11 is clear and irrefutable".[10] The Government of the United Kingdom reached the same conclusion regarding al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden's culpability for the 11 September attacks.[11]

Author Laurie Mylroie, writing in the conservative political magazine The American Spectator in 2006, argues that Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and his family are the primary architects of 9/11 and similar attacks, and that Khalid Sheikh Mohammed's association with Osama bin Laden is secondary and that al-Qaeda's claim of responsibility for the attack is after the fact and opportunistic.[12] Angelo Codevilla, of the same magazine, agrees with Mylroie, comparing Osama bin Laden to Elvis Presley.[13] In an opposing point of view, former CIA officer Robert Baer, writing in Time magazine in 2007, asserts that George W. Bush Administration's publicizing of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed's claims of responsibility for 9/11 and numerous other acts was a mendacious attempt to claim that all of the significant actors in 9/11 had been caught.[14]

al-Qaeda and blowbackEdit

Main article: al-Qaeda

The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced back to 1979 when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan Wikipedia. Soon after the invasion, Osama bin Laden traveled to Afghanistan where he helped organize Arab mujahideen and established the Maktab al-Khidamat (MAK) organization to resist the Soviets. During the war with the Soviet Union, Bin Laden and his fighters received American and Saudi funding, with American and most Saudi funds funneled through the Inter-Services Intelligence Wikipedia, Pakistan's intelligence service.[15] In 1989, as the Soviets withdrew, MAK was transformed into a "rapid reaction force" in jihad against governments across the Muslim world. Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri Wikipedia, Osama bin Laden became more radical.[16] In 1996, bin Laden issued his first fatwā, which called for American soldiers to leave Saudi Arabia.[17]

In a second fatwā issued in 1998, bin Laden outlined his objections to American foreign policy towards Israel Wikipedia, as well as the continued presence of American troops in Saudi Arabia after the Gulf War Wikipedia.[18] Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort violent action against American military and citizenry until the stated grievances are reversed, noting "ulema Wikipedia have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries."[18]

Planning of the attacksEdit

Main article: Planning of the September 11 attacks

The idea for the September 11 plot came from Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, who first presented the idea to Osama bin Laden in 1996.[19] At that point, Bin Laden and al-Qaeda were in a period of transition, having just relocated back to Afghanistan from Sudan.[20] The 1998 African Embassy bombings and Bin Laden's 1998 fatwā marked a turning point, with bin Laden intent on attacking the United States.[20] In December 1998, the Director of Central Intelligence Counterterrorist Center[who?] reported to the president that al-Qaeda was preparing for attacks in the USA, including the training of personnel to hijack aircraft.[21]

In late 1998 or early 1999, bin Laden gave approval for Mohammed to go forward with organizing the plot. A series of meetings occurred in spring of 1999, involving Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Osama bin Laden, and his deputy Mohammed Atef.[20] Mohammed provided operational support for the plot, including target selections and helping arrange travel for the hijackers.[20] Bin Laden overruled Mohammed, rejecting some potential targets such as the U.S. Bank Tower in Los Angeles[22] because "there was not enough time to prepare for such an operation".[23]

Bin Laden provided leadership for the plot, along with financial support, and was involved in selecting participants for the plot.[24] Bin Laden initially selected Nawaf al-Hazmi and Khalid al-Mihdhar, both experienced jihadists who fought in Bosnia. Hazmi and Mihdhar arrived in the United States in mid-January 2000, after traveling to Malaysia to attend the Kuala Lumpur al-Qaeda Summit. In spring 2000, Hazmi and Mihdhar took flying lessons in San Diego, California, but both spoke little English, did not do well with flying lessons, and eventually served as "muscle" hijackers.[25][26]

In late 1999, a group of men from Hamburg, Germany arrived in Afghanistan, including Mohamed Atta, Marwan al-Shehhi, Ziad Jarrah, and Ramzi Binalshibh Wikipedia.[27] Bin Laden selected these men for the plot, as they were educated, could speak English, and had experience living in the west.[28] New recruits were routinely screened for special skills, which allowed Al Qaeda leaders to also identify Hani Hanjour, who already had a commercial pilot's license, for the plot.[29]

Hanjour arrived in San Diego on December 8, 2000, joining Hazmi. They soon left for Arizona, where Hanjour took refresher training. Marwan al-Shehhi arrived at the end of May 2000, while Atta arrived on June 3, 2000, and Jarrah arrived on June 27, 2000. Binalshibh applied several times for a visa to the United States, but as a Yemeni, he was rejected out of concerns he would overstay his visa and remain as an illegal immigrant. Binalshibh remained in Hamburg, providing coordination between Atta and Khalid Sheikh Mohammed. The three Hamburg cell members all took pilot training in south Florida.

In spring 2001, the muscle hijackers began arriving in the United States.[30] In July 2001, Atta met with Binalshibh in Spain, where they coordinated details of the plot, including final target selection. Binalshibh also passed along Bin Laden's wish for the attacks to be carried out as soon as possible.[31]

Osama bin LadenEdit

Main article: Osama bin Laden

Osama bin Laden's declaration of a holy war against the United States, and a fatwā signed by bin Laden and others calling for the killing of American civilians in 1998, are seen by investigators as evidence of his motivation to commit such acts.[32]

Bin Laden initially denied, but later admitted, involvement in the incidents.[33][34] On September 16, 2001, bin Laden denied any involvement with the attacks by reading a statement which was broadcast by the Al Jazeera satellite channel: "I stress that I have not carried out this act, which appears to have been carried out by individuals with their own motivation."[35] This denial was broadcast on U.S. news networks and worldwide.

In November 2001, U.S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Jalalabad, Afghanistan, in which Osama bin Laden is talking to Khaled al-Harbi. In the tape, bin Laden admits foreknowledge of the attacks.[36] The tape was broadcast on various news networks from December 13, 2001. His distorted appearance on the tape has been attributed to tape transfer artifact.[37] The detailed timeline of Bin Laden's having prior knowledge were revealed in a September 2002 interview documentary-maker Yosri Fouda Wikipedia conducted with Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and Ramzi Binalshibh: the decision to launch a "martyrdom operation inside America" was made by Al Qaeda's military committee in early 1999; Atta, after deciding on the date (9/11/01) for the attacks, informed Binalshibh of this date on August 29, 2001, and Bin Laden was given this information on September 6, 2001.[38]

On December 27, 2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he states, "Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, which kills our people", but he stopped short of admitting responsibility for the attacks.[39]

Shortly before the U.S. presidential election in 2004, in a taped statement, bin Laden publicly acknowledged al-Qaeda's involvement in the attacks on the U.S. and admitted his direct link to the attacks. He said that the attacks were carried out because "we are free...and want to regain freedom for our nation. As you undermine our security we undermine yours."[40] Osama bin Laden says he had personally directed his followers to attack the World Trade Center[41] In the video, he says, "We had agreed with the Commander-General Muhammad Atta, Allah have mercy on him, that all the operations should be carried out within 20 minutes, before Bush and his administration notice."[34] Another video obtained by Al Jazeera in September 2006 shows Osama bin Laden with Ramzi Binalshibh Wikipedia, as well as two hijackers, Hamza al-Ghamdi and Wail al-Shehri, as they make preparations for the attacks.[42]

Khalid Sheikh MohammedEdit

Main article: Khalid Sheikh Mohammed
Khalid Shaikh Mohammed after capture

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed after his capture in Pakistan

The journalist Yosri Fouda Wikipedia of the Arabic television channel Al Jazeera reported that in April 2002, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed admitted his involvement, along with Ramzi Binalshibh Wikipedia, in the "Holy Tuesday operation".[43][44][45] The 9/11 Commission Report determined that the animosity towards the United States felt by Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, the "principal architect" of the 9/11 attacks, stemmed "not from his experiences there as a student, but rather from his violent disagreement with U.S. foreign policy favoring Israel".[20]

Mohamed Atta shared this motivation. Ralph Bodenstein, a former classmate of Atta described him as "most imbued actually about... U.S. protection of these Israeli politics in the region".[46] Abdulaziz al-Omari, a hijacker aboard Flight 11 with Mohamed Atta, said in his video will, "My work is a message those who heard me and to all those who saw me at the same time it is a message to the infidels that you should leave the Arabian peninsula defeated and stop giving a hand of help to the coward Jews in Palestine."[47]

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed was also an adviser and financier of a 1993 bombing Wikipedia, also on the World Trade Center. He is also the uncle of Ramzi Yousef Wikipedia, the lead bomber in that attack.

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed was arrested on March 1, 2003 in Rawalpindi Wikipedia, Pakistan by Pakistani security officials working with the CIA, and is currently being held at Guantanamo Bay.[48] During U.S. hearings in March 2007 Sheikh Mohammed again confessed his responsibility for the attacks, saying "I was responsible for the 9/11 operation, from A to Z."[45][49] Mohammed made the confession after being subject to waterboarding.[50] In November 2009, U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder announced that Mohammed and four accused co-conspirators will be transferred from Guantanamo Bay, Cuba to stand trial in civilian court near Ground Zero in New York. No trial date was given. Holder expressed confidence that the defendants would get a fair trial that was "open to the public and open to the world".[51]

Other al-Qaeda membersEdit

In "Substitution for Testimony of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed" from the trial of Zacarias Moussaoui, five people are identified as having been completely aware of the operation's details. They are Osama bin Laden, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Ramzi Binalshibh Wikipedia, Abu Turab al-Urduni Wikipedia and Mohammed Atef.[52] To date, only peripheral figures have been tried or convicted for the attacks. Bin Laden has not yet been formally indicted for the attacks.[53]

On September 26, 2005, the Spanish high court directed by judge Baltasar Garzón sentenced Abu Dahdah to 27 years of imprisonment for conspiracy on the 9/11 attacks and being a member of the terrorist organization al-Qaeda. At the same time, another 17 al-Qaeda members were sentenced to penalties of between six and eleven years.[54][55] On February 16, 2006, the Spanish Supreme Court reduced the Abu Dahdah penalty to 12 years because it considered that his participation in the conspiracy was not proven.[56]

MotivesEdit

The motives for the attacks include the presence of the U.S. in Saudi Arabia,[57] the support of Israel by the U.S.,[58] and the sanctions against Iraq.[59] These motives were explicitly stated by Al-Qaeda in proclamations before the attacks, including the fatwā of August 1996,[60] and a shorter fatwa published in February 1998.[61] After the attacks, bin Laden and al-Zawahiri published additional video tapes and audio tapes, some of which repeated those reasons for the attacks. Two particularly important publications were bin Laden's 2002 "Letter to America",[62] and a 2004 video tape by bin Laden.[63] In addition to direct pronouncements by bin Laden and Al-Qaeda, numerous political analysts have postulated motivations for the attacks.

The continued presence of U.S. troops after the Gulf War in Saudi Arabia was one of the stated motivations behind the September 11th terrorist attacks,[61] the Khobar Towers bombing, as well, the date chosen for the 1998 United States embassy bombings (August 7), was eight years to the day that American troops were sent to Saudi Arabia.[64] Bin Laden interpreted the Prophet Muhammad as banning the "permanent presence of infidels in Arabia".[65] In 1996, Bin Laden issued a fatwa, calling for American troops to get out of Saudi Arabia. In the 1998 fatwa, Al-Qaeda wrote " for over seven years the United States has been occupying the lands of Islam in the holiest of places, the Arabian Peninsula, plundering its riches, dictating to its rulers, humiliating its people, terrorizing its neighbors, and turning its bases in the Peninsula into a spearhead through which to fight the neighboring Muslim peoples."[66] In the December 1999 interview with Rahimullah Yusufzai, bin Laden said he felt that Americans were "too near to Mecca" and considered this a provocation to the entire Muslim world.[67]

In his November 2002 "Letter to America", Bin Laden described the United States' support of Israel as a motivation: "The creation and continuation of Israel is one of the greatest crimes, and you are the leaders of its criminals. And of course there is no need to explain and prove the degree of American support for Israel. The creation of Israel is a crime which must be erased. Each and every person whose hands have become polluted in the contribution towards this crime must pay its price, and pay for it heavily."[68] In 2004 and 2010, Bin Laden again repeated the connection between the September 11 attacks and the support of Israel by the United States.[69][70][71] Several analysts, including Mearsheimer and Walt, also assert that a motivation for the attacks was the support of Israel by the United States.[67][72]

In the 1998 fatwa, Al Qaeda identified the Iraq sanctions as a reason to kill Americans: "despite the great devastation inflicted on the Iraqi people by the crusader-Zionist alliance, and despite the huge number of those killed, which has exceeded 1 million... despite all this, the Americans are once against trying to repeat the horrific massacres, as though they are not content with the protracted blockade imposed after the ferocious war or the fragmentation and devastation....On that basis, and in compliance with Allah's order, we issue the following fatwa to all Muslims:The ruling to kill the Americans and their allies—civilians and military—is an individual duty for every Muslim..."[66]

In addition to the motives published by Al Qaeda, analysts have suggested other motives, including humiliation resulting from the Islamic world falling behind the Western world - this discrepancy made especially visible due to recent globalisation.[73][74] Another speculated motive was the desire to provoke the U.S. into a broader war against the Islamic world, with the hope of motivating more allies to support Al Qaeda.[75]

ReferencesEdit

  1. Clarke, Richard A. (2004). Against All Enemies: Inside America's War on Terrorism. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 13–14. ISBN Wikipedia 0-743-26823-7. 
  2. "FBI Announces List of 19 Hijackers". Federal Bureau of Investigation. September 14, 2001. Retrieved September 7, 2006. 
  3. "The Hamburg connection". BBC News. August 19, 2005. Retrieved October 3, 2008. 
  4. Dorman, Michael (April 17, 2006). "Unraveling 9–11 was in the bags". Security Info Watch. Retrieved September 8, 2009. 
  5. Leaders, Al-Qa'edah (September 30, 2001). "Piece by Piece, The Jigsaw of Terror Revealed". London: The Independent. Retrieved May 20, 2008. 
  6. Tagliabue, John; Raymond Bonner (September 29, 2001). "A Nation challenged: German Intelligence; German Data Led U.S. to Search For More Suicide Hijacker Teams". The New York Times. Retrieved May 21, 2008. 
  7. "The FBI releases 19 photographs of individuals believed to be the hijackers of the four airliners that crashed on September 11, 01". Federal Bureau of Investigation. United States Department of Justice. September 27, 2001. Retrieved May 20, 2008. 
  8. Johnston, David (September 9, 2003). "Two years later: 9/11 Tactics; Official Says Qaeda Recruited Saudi Hijackers to Strain Ties". The New York Times. Retrieved May 19, 2008. 
  9. Rolince, Michael E. (June 24, 2003). "The Inspector General's Report and the September 11th Response". Federal Bureau of Investigation. United States Department of Justice. Retrieved May 20, 2008. 
  10. Watson, Dale L. (February 6, 2002). "The Terrorist Threat Confronting the United States". Federal Bureau of Investigation. United States Department of Justice. Retrieved May 20, 2008. 
  11. "Responsibility for the Terrorist Atrocities in the United States, September 11, 2001". 10 Downing Street. November 14, 2001. Archived from the original on September 7, 2004. Retrieved May 20, 2008. 
  12. "Al Qaeda's Hidden Roots", by Laurie Mylroie, September 20, 2006
  13. "Osama bin Elvis", by Angelo Codevilla, March 13, 2009
  14. "Why KSM's Confession Rings False" by Robert Baer, March 15, 2007, Time magazine
  15. "Al-Qaeda's origins and links". BBC News. July 20, 2004. Retrieved December 7, 2009. 
  16. Gunaratna, Ronan (2002). Inside Al Qaeda. Berkley Books. pp. 23–33. 
  17. "Bin Laden's Fatwa (1996)". PBS. Retrieved May 20, 2008. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 "Al Qaeda's 1998 Fatwa". The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer. Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved May 19, 2008. 
  19. "Suspect 'reveals 9/11 planning'". BBC News. September 22, 2003. Retrieved May 20, 2008. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (2004). "Chapter 5". 9/11 Commission Report. Government Printing Office. ISBN Wikipedia 1577363418. Retrieved May 20, 2008. 
  21. "Bin Ladin Preparing to Hijack US Aircraft and Other Attacks". Director of Central Intelligence Wikipedia. 1998-12-04. Retrieved 2010-04-18. 
  22. Wright, Lawrence (2006). The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. Knopf. p. 308. ISBN Wikipedia 037541486X. 
  23. Litchblau, Eric (March 20, 2003). "Bin Laden Chose 9/11 Targets, Al Qaeda Leader Says". New York Times. Retrieved June 25, 2008. 
  24. Bergen, Peter (2006). The Osama bin Laden I Know. Free Press. p. 283. ISBN Wikipedia 0743278917. 
  25. Wright, Lawrence (2006). The Looming Tower. Alfred P. Knopf. pp. 309–315. ISBN Wikipedia 8483068389. 
  26. McDermott, Terry (2005). Perfect Soldiers: The 9/11 Hijackers. HarperCollins. pp. 191–192. ISBN Wikipedia 006058470X. 
  27. Bernstein, Richard (September 10, 2002). "On Path to the U.S. Skies, Plot Leader Met bin Laden". New York Times. Retrieved September 16, 2008. 
  28. Wright, Lawrence (2006). The Looming Tower. Alfred P. Knopf. pp. 304–307. ISBN Wikipedia 8483068389. 
  29. Wright, Lawrence (2006). The Looming Tower. Alfred P. Knopf. p. 302. ISBN Wikipedia 8483068389. 
  30. "Staff Monograph on 9/11 and Terrorist Travel" (PDF). 9/11 Commission. 2004. 
  31. Irujo, Jose Maria (March 21, 2004). "Atta recibió en Tarragona joyas para que los miembros del 'comando' del 11-S se hiciesen pasar por ricos saudíes" (in Spanish). El Pais. Retrieved September 15, 2008. 
  32. Gunarathna, Rohan (2002). Inside Al Qaeda, Global Network of Terror. Berkley Books. pp. 61–62. 
  33. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named cbc-2004
  34. 34.0 34.1 "Full transcript of bin Ladin's speech". Al Jazeera. November 2, 2004. Archived from the original on April 10, 2007. Retrieved May 20, 2008. 
  35. "Pakistan to Demand Taliban Give Up Bin Laden as Iran Seals Afghan Border". Fox News Channel. September 16, 2001. Retrieved May 20, 2008. 
  36. "Bin Laden on tape: Attacks 'benefited Islam greatly'". CNN. December 14, 2001. Retrieved November 9, 2007. "Reveling in the details of the fatal attacks, bin Laden brags in Arabic that he knew about them beforehand and says the destruction went beyond his hopes. He says the attacks "benefited Islam greatly"." 
  37. Haas, Ed (March 7, 2007). "Taking the fat out of the fat bin Laden confession video". Muckraker Report. Retrieved May 1, 2008. 
  38. "Al-Qaeda 'plotted nuclear attacks'". BBC News. September 8, 2002. Retrieved Jan 2010. 
  39. "Transcript: Bin Laden video excerpts". BBC News. December 27, 2001. Retrieved September 7, 2006. 
  40. Michael, Maggie (October 29, 2004). "Bin Laden, in statement to U.S. people, says he ordered Sept. 11 attacks". Associated Press. SignOnSanDiego.com. Retrieved May 2, 2008. 
  41. "Al-Jazeera: Bin Laden tape obtained in Pakistan". MSNBC. October 30, 2004. Retrieved September 7, 2006. 
  42. "Bin Laden 9/11 planning video aired". CBC News. September 7, 2006. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved May 20, 2008. 
  43. "'We left out nuclear targets, for now'". London: The Guardian. March 4, 2003. Retrieved May 20, 2008. "Yosri Fouda of the Arabic television channel al-Jazeera is the only journalist to have interviewed Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, the al-Qaida military commander arrested at the weekend. Here he describes the two-day encounter with him and his fellow organiser of September 11, Ramzi bin al- Shibh: [...] Summoning every thread of experience and courage, I looked Khalid in the eye and asked: ‘Did you do it?’ The reference to September 11 was implicit. Khalid responded with little fanfare: ‘I am the head of the al-Qaida military committee,’ he began, ‘and Ramzi is the coordinator of the Holy Tuesday operation. And yes, we did it.’" 
  44. Leonard, Tom; Spillius, Alex (October 10, 2008). "Alleged 9/11 mastermind wants to confess to plot". London: Telegraph. Retrieved July 6, 2009. 
  45. 45.0 45.1 "September 11 suspect 'confesses'". Al Jazeera. March 15, 2007. Retrieved June 10, 2009. 
  46. Making of the Death Pilots. MSNBC-TV. March 2002. 
  47. Whitaker, Brian (September 10, 2002). "Al-Qaida tape finally claims responsibility for attacks". London: Guardian. Retrieved May 7, 2007. 
  48. Shannon, Elaine; Weisskopf, Michael (March 24, 2003). "Khalid Sheikh Mohammed Names Names". TIME. Retrieved May 20, 2008. 
  49. "Key 9/11 suspect 'admits guilt'". BBC News. March 15, 2007. Retrieved May 20, 2008. 
  50. Nichols, Michelle (May 8, 2008). "US judge orders CIA to turn over 'torture' memo-ACLU". Reuters. Retrieved September 26, 2009. 
  51. "9/11 suspects face New York trial". BBC News. November 13, 2009. Retrieved November 14, 2009. 
  52. "Substitution for Testimony of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed" (PDF). United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia. United States Department of Justice. 2006. p. 24. Retrieved May 20, 2008. 
  53. Clewley, Robin (September 27, 2001). "How Osama Cracked FBI's Top 10". Wired. Retrieved July 6, 2007. 
  54. "Spain jails 18 al-Qaeda operatives". Melbourne: The Age. September 27, 2005. Retrieved May 19, 2008. 
  55. "18 jailed in Spanish Al-Qaeda trial". Forbes. September 26, 2005. Retrieved May 19, 2008. 
  56. "Country Reports on Terrorism 2006". Embassy of the United States in Spain. United States Department of State. October 2, 2007. Retrieved May 19, 2008. 
    • Full text of Bin Laden's "Letter to America"
    • Bin Laden's 2004 taped broadcast on the attacks, from Al Jazeera online here.
    • Bin Laden's taped broadcast from January 2010, transcript in Haaretz.com, online here.
    • Mearsheimer, John J. (2007). The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy. Macmillan. p. 67. 
    • Kushner, Harvey (2003). Encyclopedia of terrorism. SAGE. p. 389. 
    • Murdico, Suzanne (2003). Osama Bin Laden. Rosen Publishing Group. p. 64. 
    • Kelley, Christopher (2006). Executing the Constitution. SUNY Press. p. 207. 
    • Ibrahim, Raymond (2007). The Al Qaeda reader. Random House. p. 276. 
    • Berner, Brad (2007). The World According to Al Qaeda. Peacock. p. 80. 
  57. Text of the 1996 fatwa, translation by PBS
  58. 61.0 61.1 Text of the 1998 fatwa translation by PBS
  59. Full transcript of bin Laden's "Letter to America"
  60. "So I shall talk to you about the story behind those events and shall tell you truthfully about the moments in which the decision was taken, for you to consider."[1] -2004 Osama bin Laden video
  61. Plotz, David (2001) What Does Osama Bin Laden Want?, Slate
  62. Bergen, Peter L. (2001). Holy War Inc.. Simon & Schuster. p. 3. 
  63. 66.0 66.1 1998 Al Qaeda fatwa
  64. 67.0 67.1 Yusufzai, Rahimullah (September 26, 2001). "Face to face with Osama". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2010-05-13. 
  65. Full text of Bin Laden's "Letter to America"
  66. Bin Laden's 2004 taped broadcast on the attacks, in which he explains the motives for the attacks and says "The events that affected my soul in a direct way started in 1982 when America permitted the Israelis to invade Lebanon and the American Sixth Fleet helped them in that. This bombardment began and many were killed and injured and others were terrorised and displaced. " (Quoted from Al Jazeera online here)
  67. Bin Laden's taped broadcast from January 2010, where he said "Our attacks against you [the United States] will continue as long as U.S. support for Israel continues.... The message sent to you with the attempt by the hero Nigerian Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab Wikipedia is a confirmation of our previous message conveyed by the heroes of Sept. 11". (Quoted from "Bin Laden: Attacks on U.S. to go on as long as it supports Israel", in Haaretz.com, online here).
  68. See also the 1998 Al-Qaeda fatwa: "[T]he aim [of the United States] is also to serve the Jews' petty state and divert attention from its occupation of Jerusalem and murder of Muslims there. The best proof of this is their eagerness to destroy Iraq, the strongest neighboring Arab state, and their endeavor to fragment all the states of the region such as Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Sudan into paper statelets and through their disunion and weakness to guarantee Israel's survival and the continuation of the brutal crusade occupation of the Peninsula." quoted from Text of the 1998 fatwa translation by PBS
    • Mearsheimer, John J. (2007). The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy. Macmillan. p. 67. 
    • Kushner, Harvey (2003). Encyclopedia of terrorism. SAGE. p. 389. 
    • Murdico, Suzanne (2003). Osama Bin Laden. Rosen Publishing Group. p. 64. 
    • Kelley, Christopher (2006). Executing the Constitution. SUNY Press. p. 207. 
    • Ibrahim, Raymond (2007). The Al Qaeda reader. Random House. p. 276. 
    • Berner, Brad (2007). The World According to Al Qaeda. Peacock. p. 80. 
  69. In Bernard Lewis's 2004 book The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror, he argues animosity toward the west is best understood with the decline of the once powerful Ottoman empire, compounded by the import of western ideas— Arab socialism, Arab liberalism and Arab secularism. During the past three centuries, the Islamic world has lost its dominance and its leadership, and has fallen behind both the modern West and the rapidly modernizing Orient. This widening gap poses increasingly acute problems, both practical and emotional, for which the rulers, thinkers, and rebels of Islam have not yet found effective answers. From The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror. Bernard Lewis. 2004
  70. In an essay titled 'The spirit of terrorism', Jean Baudrillard described 9/11 as the first global event that "questions the very process of globalization". Baudrillard. "The spirit of terrorism". Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
    • Michael Scott Doran and Peter Bergen have argued that 9/11 was a strategic way to provoke America into a war that incites a pan-Islamisic revolution. Michael Scott Doran argues the attacks are best understood as being part of a religious conflict within the Muslim world. In an essay, Somebody Else's Civil War Doran argued that Bin Laden's followers: "consider themselves an island of true believers surrounded by a sea of iniquity". "somebody-elses-civil-war". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 5 December 2009. 
    • Hoping that U.S. retaliation would unite the faithful against the West, bin Laden sought to spark revolutions in Arab nations and elsewhere. Doran argues the Osama bin Laden videos were attempting to provoke a visceral reaction in the Middle East and ensure that Muslim citizens would react as violently as possible to an increase in U.S. involvement in their region. Doran, Michael Scott (2005). Understanding the War on Terror. New York: Norton. pp. 72–75. ISBN Wikipedia 0-87609-347-0. 
    • In The Osama bin Laden I Know, correspondent Peter Bergen argues that the attacks were part of a plan to cause the United States to increase its military and cultural presence in the Middle East, thereby forcing Muslims to confront the idea of a non-Muslim government and establish conservative Islamic governments in the region. Bergen, Peter (2006). The Osama bin Laden I Know: An Oral History of al Qaeda's Leader. New York: Free Press. p. 229. ISBN Wikipedia 0-7432-7891-7. 

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