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The Reactions to the September 11 attacks included condemnation from world leaders, other political and religious representatives and the international media, as well as numerous memorials and services all over the world. The attacks were denounced by the governments of countries traditionally considered hostile to the United States, such as Cuba, Iran, Libya and North Korea. However in some cases celebrations of the attacks were also reported, and some groups and individuals accused the United States in effect of bringing the attacks on itself.

In the immediate aftermath of the attacks support for the United States' right to defend itself was expressed across the world, and by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1368.[1] Many countries introduced "anti-terrorism" legislation[2] and froze the bank accounts[3] of businesses and individuals they suspected of having connections with al-Qaeda and its leader Osama bin Laden, the presumed perpetrators of the attacks.

United StatesEdit

In the immediate aftermath of the attacks, the Bush administration declared a war on terrorism, with the stated goals of bringing Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda to justice and preventing the emergence of other terrorist networks. These goals would be accomplished by means including economic and military sanctions against states perceived as harboring terrorists and increasing global surveillance and intelligence sharing. Immediately after the September 11 attacks US officials[4] speculated on possible involvement by Saddam Hussein; although unfounded, the association contributed to public acceptance for the 2003 invasion of Iraq Wikipedia. The second-biggest operation of the US Global War on Terrorism outside of the United States, and the largest directly connected to terrorism, was the overthrow of the Taliban Wikipedia rule from Afghanistan, by a US-led coalition.

Muslim AmericansEdit

In a Joint Statement by American Muslim Alliance, American Muslim Council, Association of Muslim Scientists and Engineers, Association of Muslim Social Scientists, Council on American-Islamic Relations, Islamic Medical Association of North America, Islamic Circle of North America, Islamic Society of North America, Ministry of Imam W. Deen Mohammed, Muslim American Society and Muslim Public Affairs Council, stated:[5]

American Muslims utterly condemn the vicious and cowardly acts of terrorism against innocent civilians. We join with all Americans in calling for the swift apprehension and punishment of the perpetrators. No political cause could ever be assisted by such immoral acts.

Western worldEdit

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After the attacks many governments and organizations in the West expressed shock and sympathy, and were supportive of burgeoning efforts to combat terrorism. Among them:

  • NATO held an emergency meeting[which?][when?] of the alliance's ambassadors[who?] in Brussels. The secretary general, Lord Robertson, promised the United States that it could rely on its allies in North America and Europe for assistance and support, and pledged that those responsible would not get away with it.[6]
  • European foreign ministers[who?] scheduled a rare emergency meeting[which?] the next day of the attacks to discuss a joint response, as officials expressed solidarity with the United States. The external relations commissioner, Chris Patten, called the attacks the work of a madman.[6]
  • British security forces across the world were placed on maximum alert. Prime Minister Tony Blair pledged that Britain would stand full square alongside the US in the battle against terrorism. Queen Elizabeth expressed growing disbelief and total shock.[6] In London, the US national anthem was played at the Changing of the Guard at Buckingham Palace. However the BBC apologised after an edition[which?] of Question Time, held two days after the attacks, saw the US ambassador to the UK Philip Lader face hostile criticism of US foreign policy from audience members.[7]
  • In Germany, Chancellor Gerhard Schröder described the attacks as "a declaration of war against the civilized world." Authorities[who?] urged Frankfurt, the country's financial capital, to close all its major skyscrapers. The new Jewish museum in Berlin canceled its public opening.[6] In Berlin, 200,000 Germans marched to show their solidarity with America.
  • Le Monde, ran a front-page headline reading "Nous sommes tous Américains", or "We are all Americans".[citation needed]
  • A National Day of Mourning was held in Ireland on September 14, the only country other than the USA and Israel to do so.[citation needed]
File:911-Panel.JPG

United NationsEdit

The following day after the attacks, the Security Council members condemned the terrorist attacks on the United States and adopted resolution 1368, by which they expressed readiness to take all necessary steps to respond to the attacks of September 11 and to combat all forms of terrorism in accordance with their Charter responsibilities.[12]

Then-Secretary General of the UN Kofi Annan, said: We are all traumatized by this terrible tragedy.[6]

Islamic worldEdit

This article has been assessed as havingUnknown importance.

Good scope? +YesY Timeline?NoN wikified?NoN red links < 10?NoN all red links fixed?NoN referenced?NoN Illustrated?NoN Googled and added info? NoN Checked 9/11 records archives? NoN Checked Wikinews? NoN Checked Wikisource? NoN Reactions to the attacks in the Muslim world were mixed. Most Muslim political and religious leaders condemned the attacks. The leaders vehemently denouncing the attacks included the Presidents of Egypt, Jordan, the Palestinian Authority, Libya, Syria, Iran and Pakistan.[5][13] The sole exception was Iraq, when the then-president Saddam Hussein Wikipedia, said of the attacks that "the American cowboys are reaping the fruit of their crimes against humanity".[14] Saddam would later offer sympathy to the Americans killed in the attacks.[15]

  • Renowned Muslim scholar Yusuf al-Qaradawi denounced the attacks and the killings of hundreds of civilians as a "heinous crime" and urged Muslims to donate blood to the victims. He did however criticise the United States' "biased policy towards Israel" and also called on Muslims to "concentrate on facing the occupying enemy directly", inside the Palestinian territories.[16] The alleged Hezbollah "spiritual mentor" and Lebanese Shia cleric Mohammed Hussein Fadlallah condemned the attacks.
  • Ahmed Yassin, the spiritual leader of Hamas, said he was not interested in exporting such attacks to the United States, however he criticized the "unfair American position".[17]
  • Afghanistan's Taliban rulers condemned the attacks and also vehemently rejected suggestions that Osama bin Laden, who had been given asylum in Afghanistan, could be behind them.[17]
  • Huge crowds attended candlelit vigils in Iran, and 60,000 spectators observed a minute's silence at Tehran football stadium[which?].[18][19]

Palestinian celebrationsEdit

The Palestinian National Authority(PNA) immediately condemned the attacks. Fox News reported that in Ein el-Hilweh, Lebanon's largest Palestinian refugee camp, revelers fired weapons in the air, with similar celebratory gunfire heard at the Rashidiyeh camp Wikipedia near the southern city of Tyre as well.[17]

Reports and images of Palestinians from East Jerusalem, Nablus, and Lebanon taking to the streets in celebration, were broadcast around the world.[17] with manyTemplate:Weasel-inline newspapers, magazines, Web sites and wire services running photographs.[20][21] The PNA claimed such celebrations were not representative of the sentiments of the Palestinian people, and the Information Minister Yasser Abed Rabbo said the PNA would not allow "a few kids" to "smear the real face of the Palestinians". In an attempt to quash further reporting, Ahmed Abdel Rahman, Arafat's Cabinet secretary, said the PNA could not "guarantee the life" of an Associated Press cameraman[who?] if footage he filmed[which?] of post-9/11 celebrations in Nablus was broadcast. Rahman's statement prompted a formal protest from the AP bureau chief, Dan Perry.[22][21]

Annette Krüger Spitta of the ARD's (German public broadcasting) TV magazine Panorama states that footage not aired shows that the street surrounding the celebration in Jerusalem is quiet. Furthermore, she states that a man in a white T-shirt incited the children and gathered people together for the shot. The ''Panorama'' report, dated September 20, 2001, quotes Communications Professor Martin Löffelholz explaining that in the images one sees jubilant Palestinian children and several adults but there is no indication that their pleasure is related to the attack. The woman seen cheering (Nawal Abdel Fatah) stated afterwards that she was offered cake if she celebrated on camera, and was frightened when she saw the pictures on television afterward.[23]

There was also rumour that the footage of some Palestinians celebrating the attacks was stock footage of Palestinian reactions to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990.[24] This rumour was proven false shortly afterwards,[25] and CNN issued a statement[which?] to that effect.[26]

Rest of the worldEdit

This article has been assessed as havingUnknown importance.

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  • Israel: the day after the attacks, Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon urged the world to fight terrorism and declared a national day of mourning in solidarity with the United States.[6] Former Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu "linked the attacks to [Israel's] plight" and speculated that the attacks might improve Israel–United States relations.[27]
  • India declared high alert across most of its major cities and conveyed "deepest sympathies" to the US and condemned the attacks.[28]
  • Mexico increased its security, causing enormous traffic jams at the United States border and officials said they were considering closing the entire border. President Vicente Fox expressed "solidarity and our most profound condolences".[6]
  • The Cuban government expressed its pain and solidarity with its longtime adversary and offered air and medical facilities to help.[6]
  • Chinese President Jiang Zemin said he was "shocked" and sent his condolences to President Bush, while the Chinese Foreign Ministry said China "opposed all manner" of terrorism.[6]
  • Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi expressed "great anger" and said that "these acts of terrorism should not be forgiven." Special security precautions were ordered at all United States military installations.[6]
  • Russia put troops on alert. President Vladimir Putin held an emergency meeting[when?][which?] of security officials[who?] and said he supported a tough response to these "barbaric acts".[6]

TimelineEdit

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ReferencesEdit

  1. UN Security Council Resolution 1368 (2001)
  2. Hamilton, Stuart (August 18–24, 2002). "September 11, the Internet, and the effects on information provision in Libraries" (pdf). 68th IFLA Council and Conference. Retrieved 2006-09-08. 
  3. "G8 counter-terrorism cooperation since September 11 backgrounder". Site Internet du Sommet du G8 d'Evian. Retrieved 2006-09-14. 
  4. "Plans For Iraq Attack Began On 9/11". CBS News. September 4, 2002. Retrieved 2007-01-08. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 CrescentLife - Muslim Reactions to September 11th
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 NY Times - Reaction From Around the World
  7. "BBC chief apologises for terror debate". BBC News. September 15, 2001. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  8. Johnston, Tim (2007-11-25), "Ally of Bush Is Defeated in Australia", The New York Times: p. 8, retrieved 2008-05-06 
  9. World leaders united in condemnation - 12 Sep 2001 - NZ Herald: World / International News
  10. Pledge NZ forces says poll - 01 Oct 2001 - NZ Herald: New Zealand National news
  11. Pacific - Security - NZ Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade
  12. Security Council Condemns, ‘In Strongest Terms’, Terrorist Attacks On United States
  13. September 11 News.com - International Reaction - The 09-11-2001 Attacks on the USA With Archived News, Images, Photos, & Newspapers from the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks on New York City & the Pentagon
  14. "Attacks draw mixed response in Mideast". CNN. September 12, 2001. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  15. Whitaker, Brian (October 22, 2001). "Saddam Hussein offers sympathy in email to US". The Guardian (London). Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  16. Islam Online- News Section
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 "Arafat Horrified by Attacks, but Thousands of Palestinians Celebrate; Rest of World Outraged". Fox News. September 12, 2001. 
  18. "Iran's gulf of misunderstanding with US". BBC News. September 25, 2006. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  19. Iran mourns America's dead Time Inc.
  20. BBC: In pictures: Atrocities' aftermath
  21. 21.0 21.1 'Palestinian Officials Quash Pictures of Arab Celebrations' by Catherine Donaldson-Evans (FOX News)
  22. Personal website at Tripod.com:
    'Attacks celebrated in West Bank' by The Times, UK
    'Palestinians in Lebanon Celebrate Anti-US Attacks' by Ain-al-Helweh, Lebanon (AFP)
    'Palestinians Celebrate Attacks with Gunfire' by Joseph Logan (Reuters)
    'AP protests threats to freelance cameraman who filmed Palestinian rally' (The Associated Press)
    'Foreign journalists 'deeply concerned' by PA harassment' (The Associated Press)
    'Palestinian Authority has muzzled coverage of Palestinian celebrations' (MIDDLE EAST NEWSLINE)
    'Israel to AP: Release film of Palestinian celebrations' (Jerusalem Post/The Associated Press)
    'Bin-Laden Poster Seen at Gaza Rally' (The Associated Press)
    .
  23. 'Pictures, reports, embarrassment - the media and the disaster' by Annette Krüger Spitta for Panorama (ARD, Germany) (Babelfish translated), (Google translated), (source article)(Template:ISO 639 name de)
  24. 'The power of the TV-pictures, What is the truth?' by Lisa Erdmann (Der Spiegel) (Google Translated), (translation original) - (source article)(Template:ISO 639 name de)
  25. 'Claim: CNN used old footage to fake images. Status: False.' (Snopes.com)
  26. CNN statement about false claim it used old video, CNN.
  27. Adrian Guelke (2006). Terrorism and Global Disorder: Political Violence in the Contemporary World. I.B.Tauris. p. 133. ISBN Wikipedia ISBN 185043803X, 9781850438038. 
  28. "Indian Newspaper Highlights - Sept 12, 2001". AsiaPulse News. September 12, 2001. Archived from the original on July 16, 2012. 

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