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Casualties of the September 11 attacks included a total of 2,977 fatalities [1](excluding the 19 terrorist hijackers): 246 on the four planes (from which there were no survivors), 2,606 in New York City in the towers and on the ground [2], and 125 at the Pentagon.[3] All of the fatalities in the attacks were civilians except for 55 military personnel killed at the Pentagon.[4] More than 90 countries lost citizens in the attacks on the World Trade Center.[5] In 2007, the New York City medical examiner's office added Felicia Dunn-Jones to the official death toll from the September 11 attacks. Dunn-Jones died five months after 9/11 from a lung condition which was linked to exposure to dust during the collapse of the World Trade Center.[6]

EvacuationEdit

At the time of the incident, media reports suggested that tens of thousands might have been killed in the attacks, as on any given day upwards of 100,000 people could be inside the towers. Estimates of the number of people in the Twin Towers when attacked on 9/11 range between 14,000 and 19,000. NIST estimated that approximately 17,400 civilians were in the World Trade Center complex at the time of the September 11, 2001 attacks.[7] Turnstile counts from the Port Authority indicate that the number of people typically in the Twin Towers by 8:45 a.m. was 14,154.[8]

SurvivorsEdit

Only 14 people escaped from the impact zone of the South Tower after it was hit and only four people from the floors above it. They escaped via Stairwell A, the only stairwell which had been left intact after the impact. No one was able to escape from above the impact zone in the North Tower after it was hit, as all stairwells and elevator shafts on those floors were destroyed. After the collapse of the towers, only 23 survivors who were in or below the towers escaped from the debris, including 15 rescue workers. The last survivor was pulled from the rubble 27 hours after the collapse of the towers. A total of 6,294 people were reported to have been treated in area hospitals for injuries related to the 9/11 attacks in New York City.


FatalitiesEdit

World Trade CenterEdit

An estimated 200 people jumped to their deaths from the burning towers (as depicted in the photograph "The Falling Man"), landing on the streets and rooftops of adjacent buildings hundreds of feet below.[9] To witnesses watching, a few of the people falling from the towers seemed to have tumbled or leapt out of broken windows.[9] Some of the occupants of each tower above its point of impact made their way upward toward the roof in hope of helicopter rescue. There was a plan to use helicopters;[citation needed] however, it wasn't used due to the intense smoke; the roof access doors were locked, Port Authority officers attempted to unlock the doors; however the system would not let them, and thick smoke and intense heat would have prevented rescue helicopters from landing.[10]

Cantor Fitzgerald L.P., an investment bank on the 101st–105th floors of One World Trade Center, lost 658 employees, considerably more than any other employer. Marsh Inc., located immediately below Cantor Fitzgerald on floors 93–101 (the location of Flight 11's impact), lost 295 employees, including one on Flight 175, and 60 consultants. Risk Waters was holding a conference in Windows on the World at the time, with 81 people in attendance.[11][12]

John P. O'Neill was a former assistant director of the FBI Wikipedia who assisted in the capture of Ramzi Yousef Wikipedia and was the head of security at the World Trade Center when he was killed trying to rescue people from the South Tower.[13] An additional 24 people remain listed as missing.[14]

The average age of all the dead in New York City was 40.[15] The dead included 8 children: 5 on American 77 ranging in age from 3 to 11, 3 on United 175 ages 2, 3, and 4.[16] The youngest victim was a 2 year-old child on Flight 175, the oldest an 82 year-old passenger on Flight 11. In the buildings, the youngest victim was 17 and the oldest was 79.[17]

PentagonEdit

Of the 125 victims in the Pentagon, 70 were civilians and 55 were military personnel.[18] Lieutenant General Timothy Maude was the highest ranking military official killed at the Pentagon.[19]

By the numbersEdit

Fatalities included the following:

  • Everyone aboard the four planes (no one aboard the hijacked aircraft survived)[20] This includes (not counting the hijackers) 79 passengers and 11 crew members aboard American Airlines Flight 11;[21] 51 passengers and 9 crew members aboard United Airlines Flight 175;[22] 53 passengers and 6 crew members aboard American Airlines Flight 77;[23] 33 passengers and 7 crew members aboard United Airlines Flight 93.[24][25]
  • 2,606 in New York City in the towers and on the ground:[2]
    • This includes 343 New York City Fire Department firefighters, 23 New York City Police Department officers, and 37 Port Authority Police Department officers.[26] Casualties of the 9/11 attacks also included 15 EMTs[27] and 3 Court Officers. Approximately 2,000 first responders were also injured in the attacks.[27]
    • 1,366 people died who were at or above the floors of impact in the North Tower (1 WTC); according to the Commission Report, hundreds were killed instantly by the impact while the rest were trapped and died after the tower collapsed (though a few people were pulled from the rubble, none of them were from above the impact zone).[28]
    • As many as 600 people were killed instantly or trapped at or above the floors of impact in the South Tower (2 WTC). Only about 18 managed to escape in time from above and in the impact zone and out of the South Tower before it collapsed.
    • Of those who worked below the impact zones, only 110 were among those killed in the attacks. The 9/11 Commission notes that this fact strongly indicates that evacuation below the impact zones was a success, allowing most to safely evacuate before the collapse of the World Trade Center.[29]
  • 125 in the Pentagon[3]

Forensic identificationEdit

Ultimately, 2,752 death certificates were filed relating to the 9/11 attacks [30], as of February 2005. Of these, 1,588 (58%) were forensically identified from recovered physical remains.[31][32] The Associated Press reported that the city has "about 10,000 unidentified bone and tissue fragments that cannot be matched to the list of the dead."[33] Bone fragments were still being found in 2006 as workers prepared the damaged Deutsche Bank Building Wikipedia for demolition.

See alsoEdit

[1] [2]

ReferencesEdit

  1. "Lost lives remembered during 9/11 ceremony". The Online Rocket. September 12, 2008. Retrieved August 29, 2010. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Accused 9/11 plotter Khalid Sheikh Mohammed faces New York trial". CNN. November 13, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2010. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "First video of Pentagon 9/11 attack released". CNN. May 16, 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-10. 
  4. Stone, Andrea (2002-08-20). "Military's aid and comfort ease 9/11 survivors' burden". USA Today. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  5. Walker, Carolee (2006-09-11). "Five-Year 9/11 Remembrance Honors Victims from 90 Countries". United States Department of State Wikipedia. Archived from the original on 2008-01-15. Retrieved 2008-05-18. 
  6. DePalma, Anthony (2007-05-24). "For the First Time, New York Links a Death to 9/11 Dust". The New York Times. 
  7. Averill, Jason D., et al. (2005). "Occupant Behavior, Egress, and Emergency Communications". Final Reports of the Federal Building and Fire Investigation of the World Trade Center Disaster. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). 
  8. Dwyer, Jim and Kevin Flynn (2005). 102 Minutes. Times Books. pp. 266. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Cauchon, Dennis and Martha Moore (September 2, 2002). "Desperation forced a horrific decision". USATODAY. Retrieved 2006-09-09. 
  10. "Poor Info Hindered 9/11 Rescue". CBS News. May 18, 2004. Retrieved 2006-09-11. 
  11. Citizens of the World, on Time for a Meeting in Harm's Way, The New York Times, September 11, 2001
  12. Field, Peter, Remembering September 11 The Day I’ll Never Forget, Risk Waters
  13. "FBI terrorist fighter's body found at WTC". CNN. September 22, 2002. Retrieved 2007-04-16. 
  14. "24 Remain Missing". September 11 Victims. 2006, August 12. Retrieved 2006-09-07. 
  15. Beveridge, Andrew. "9/11/01-02: A Demographic Portrait Of The Victims In 10048". Gotham Gazette. 
  16. Lynne, Diana (December 21, 2001). "Littlest victims largely overlooked". World Net Daily. Retrieved 2006-09-08. 
  17. "Victims of the World Trade Center attack, listed by age". Lewis Mumford Center for comparative urban and regional research. Retrieved 2006-09-11. 
  18. "National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States". U.S. Congress. August 21, 2004. Retrieved 2006-09-08. 
  19. "Remembering the Lost". Timothy J. Maude, Lieutenant General, United States Army. Arlington National Cemetery. September 22, 2001. Retrieved 2001-04-16. 
  20. "September 11: Chronology of terror". Retrieved August 29, 2010. 
  21. Victims of the American Airlines FLIGHT 11
  22. Victims of the United Airlines Flight 175
  23. Victims of the American Airlines Flight 77
  24. Victims of the United Airlines Flight 93
  25. Flight 93 Memorial Effort Gains Over 900 Acres, The New York Times, March 19, 2008
  26. "September 11 by the Numbers". NewYorkMag.com. September 5, 2002. Retrieved 2006-09-10. 
  27. 27.0 27.1 NIST NCSTAR1-8
  28. "Heroism and Honor". National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. U.S. Congress. August 21, 2004. Retrieved 2006-09-08. 
  29. 9/11 Commission. "Chapter 9". 9/11 Commission Report. Government Printing Office. 
  30. However, if we add up the 87 victims of Flight 11 ("American Airlines Flight 11". ), the 60 victims of Flight 175 ("United Airlines Flight 175". ) and the 2,606 victims of the towers ("Accused 9/11 plotter Khalid Sheikh Mohammed faces New York trial". ) we obtain a total of 2,753 victims.
  31. "CNN". Identification of 9/11 remains comes to an end. February 23, 2005. Retrieved February 23, 2005. 
  32. Moore, Martha T. (February 24, 2005). "USA Today". NYC's work to ID 9/11 victims ends - for now. Retrieved February 23, 2005. 
  33. "Ground Zero Forensic Work Ends". CBS News. February 23, 2005. Retrieved 2006-09-08. 

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