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American Airlines Flight 11
260px
AA 11 flight path from Boston to New York City
Hijacking summary
Date Template:Start-date
Type Hijacking
Site World Trade Center
Passengers 81 (including 5 hijackers)
Crew 11
Fatalities 92 in aircraft, over 1,300 in the North Tower of the World Trade Center.
Aircraft type 767-223ER Wikipedia
Operator American Airlines
Tail number N334AA
Flight origin Logan International Airport
Destination Los Angeles International Airport

American Airlines Flight 11 was a scheduled U.S. domestic passenger flight from Logan International Airport in Boston to Los Angeles International Airport. It was hijacked by five al-Qaedan terrorists and deliberately crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Center as part of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.

Fifteen minutes into the flight, the hijackers injured at least three people, forcefully breached the cockpit, and overpowered the pilot and first officer. Mohamed Atta, a known member of al-Qaeda,[1][2] and trained as a pilot, took over the controls. Air traffic controllers noticed the flight was in distress when the crew stopped responding to them. They realized the flight had been hijacked when Atta mistakenly transmitted announcements for passengers to air traffic control. On board, two flight attendants (Betty Ong and Madeleine Sweeney) contacted American Airlines Wikipedia, and provided information about the hijackers and injuries to passengers and crew.

The aircraft crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Center at 8:46 local time; the impact killed all 92 people aboard, including the hijackers, plus an unconfirmed number of people in the buildings impact zone. Many people in the streets witnessed the collision, and the Naudet brothers captured the impact on video, as did Pavel Hlava. Mark Burnback and Wolfgang Staehle had a webcam set up that captured the impact through a series of photographs. The impact and subsequent fire caused the North Tower to collapse, which resulted in thousands of additional casualties. During the recovery effort at the World Trade Center site, workers recovered and identified dozens of remains from Flight 11 victims (see section Aftermath below), but many other body fragments could not be identified.

FlightEdit

The American Airlines Flight 11 aircraft was a Boeing 767 Wikipedia-223ER delivered in 1987, registration number N334AA.[3] The capacity of the aircraft was 158 passengers but the September 11 flight carried only 81 passengers and 11 crew members. The plane had 158 seats (9 in first class, 30 in business class, and 119 in economy). Although this was a light load at 51 percent capacity, the average load factor for Flight 11 on Tuesday mornings had been 39 percent in the months preceding September 11.[4] The 11 crew members included pilot John Ogonowski, First Officer Thomas McGuinness, and flight attendants Barbara Arestegui, Jeffrey Collman, Sara Low, Karen Martin, Kathleen Nicosia, Betty Ong, Jean Roger, Dianne Snyder, and Madeline Sweeney.[5]

Flight 11, a Boeing 767 with a capacity of 158 passengers, is about half full on this day, with 81 passengers on board (including the five hijackers), along with the two pilots and nine flight attendants. [9/11 COMMISSION, 8/26/2004, PP. 6 ]

In all, 92 people on board were killed.[6] David Angell (the creator and executive producer of Frasier Wikipedia) and his wife, along with actress Berry Berenson, were among the passengers killed.[7] Family Guy creator Seth MacFarlane had been scheduled to be on the flight but arrived at the airport late.[8]

BoardingEdit

Atta in airport

Atta (blue shirt) and al-Omari at Portland International Jetport, passing through security on the morning of 9/11

Mohamed Atta, and Abdulaziz al-Omari, arrived at Portland International Jetport at 05:41 Eastern Standard Time on September 11, 2001. They boarded Colgan Air Flight 5930, which was scheduled to depart at 06:00 from Portland, Maine and fly to Boston, Massachusetts. Both hijackers had first class tickets with a connecting flight to Los Angeles; Atta checked in two bags, al-Omari none.[4] When they checked in, the Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System (CAPPS) selected Atta for extra luggage scrutiny, but he boarded without incident.[9] The flight from Portland departed on time and arrived in Boston at 06:45. Three other hijackers, Waleed al-Shehri, Wail al-Shehri, and Satam al-Suqami, arrived at Logan Airport at 06:45, having left their rental car in the airport parking facility. At 06:52, Marwan al-Shehhi, the hijacker pilot of United Airlines Flight 175, made a call from a pay phone in Logan Airport to Atta's cell phone.[4][10]

Since they were not given boarding passes for Flight 11 in Portland, Atta and Omari checked in and went through security in Boston Logan International Airport.[11] In the rushed check-in after the flight from Portland, airline officials did not load Atta's bags on Flight 11.[12][13] Suqami, Wail al-Shehri, and Waleed al-Shehri also checked in for the flight in Boston. Wail al-Shehri and Suqami each checked one bag; Waleed al-Shehri did not check any bags.[4] CAPPS selected all three for a detailed luggage check.[14] As the CAPPS' screening was only for luggage, the three hijackers did not undergo any extra scrutiny at the passenger security checkpoint.[15]

By 07:40, all five hijackers were aboard the flight, scheduled to depart at 07:45.[10][16] Mohamed Atta sat in business class seat 8D with Abdulaziz al-Omari in 8G and Suqami in 10B. Waleed al-Shehri and Wail al-Shehri sat in first class seats 2B and 2A respectively.[14] The aircraft taxied away from Gate B32[17] and departed Logan International Airport at 07:59 from runway 4R after a 14-minute delay.[18][19]

HijackingEdit

"Okay, my name is Betty Ong. I'm [Flight Attendant] Number 3 on Flight 11. Our Number 1 got stabbed. Our Purser is stabbed. Nobody knows who stabbed who and we can't even get up to business class right now because nobody can breathe. And we can't get to the cockpit, the door won't open."
Flight attendant Betty Ong to the American Airlines emergency line.[20]

The 9/11 Commission estimated that the hijacking began at 08:14, when the pilots stopped responding to requests from the Boston Air Route Traffic Control Center (Boston ARTCC).[10] It is believed that Waleed al-Shehri made the first move. At 08:13:29, as the aircraft was passing 26,000 feet (7,900 m) over central Massachusetts, the pilots responded to a request from Boston ARTCC to make a 20-degree turn to the right. At 08:13:47, Boston ARTCC told the pilots to ascend to a cruising altitude of 35,000 feet (11,000 m) but got no response.[19] It is believed that Captain Ogonowski was stabbed to death in order for the hijacker pilot Mohamed Atta to take control of the plane and crash it into the North Tower of the World Trade Center. Before dying, Ogonowski managed to engage the aircraft's radio system to allow air traffic control to listen to the terrorists' conversations in the aircraft's cabin. At 08:16, the aircraft leveled off at 29,000 feet (8,800 m)[19] and shortly thereafter deviated from its scheduled path. Boston ARTCC made multiple attempts to talk to Flight 11 but got no reply,[10] and at 08:21, the flight stopped transmitting its Mode-C transponder signal.[19]

According to flight attendants Madeline Sweeney and Betty Ong, who contacted American Airlines during the hijacking, the hijackers had stabbed flight attendants Karen Martin and Barbara Arestegui and slashed the throat of passenger Daniel Lewin.[21][22][23] Lewin, an Internet entrepreneur, had served as an officer in the elite Sayeret Matkal unit of the Israeli military. Sayeret Matkal is a special intelligence operation unit that is also involved in monitoring and destroying foreign nuclear weaponry. [24][25] Lewin was seated in 9B, and Suqami was directly behind him in 10B.[26] The 9/11 Commission suggested that Suqami may have stabbed and killed Lewin after he attempted to stop the hijacking.[10] During a four-minute call to the American Airlines operations center, Ong provided information about lack of communication with the cockpit, lack of access to the cockpit, and passenger injuries.[27] She provided the seat locations of the hijackers, which later helped investigators to determine their identities.[27]

At 08:23:38, Atta tried to make an announcement to the passengers but pressed the wrong button and sent the message to Boston ARTCC.[28] Air traffic controllers heard Atta announce, "We have some planes, just stay quiet and you'll be okay. We are returning to the airport". At 08:24:56, he announced "Nobody move. Everything will be okay. If you try to make any moves, you'll endanger yourself and the airplane. Just stay quiet."[19] As before, Atta thought he was speaking only to the passengers but his voice was picked up and recorded by air traffic controllers. After the transmissions by Atta and the inability to contact the airliner, air traffic controllers at Boston ARTCC realized the flight had been hijacked.[29] At 08:26, the plane turned south.[19] At 08:32, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Command Center in Herndon, Virginia, notified FAA headquarters.[10]

At 08:33:59, Atta announced, "Nobody move please, we are going back to the airport, don't try to make any stupid moves".[19] At 08:37:08, the pilots of United Airlines Flight 175 verified Flight 11's location and heading to flight control.[30] Boston ARTCC bypassed standard protocols and directly contacted the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) Northeast Air Defense Sector (NEADS) in Rome, New York.[10] NEADS called on two F-15 fighter jets at Otis Air Force Base, to intercept. Officials at Otis spent a few minutes getting authorization for the fighters to take off.[10] Flight 11 made a final turn towards Manhattan at 08:43.[19] The order to dispatch the fighters at Otis was given at 08:46, and the F-15s took off at 08:53.[10][29] By that time, Flight 11 had already crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Center. Of the four hijacked aircraft on 9/11, the nine minutes of advance notification about the hijacking of Flight 11 was the most time that NORAD had to respond before the aircraft crashed into its target.[31]

CrashEdit

pt 1Edit

File:Wolfgang Staehle's Flight 11.gif

At 08:46:40, the hijackers deliberately crashed Flight 11 into the northern facade of the North Tower (Tower 1) of the World Trade Center.[19] The aircraft, traveling at about 404 knots (about 466 miles per hour (750 km/h)) and carrying about 10000 U.S.gal of jet fuel, hit between the 93rd and 99th floors of the North Tower.[32]

File:Hlava WTC1 impact.jpg

Witnesses saw the plane flying at low altitude over Manhattan and thought the aircraft was in distress. Port Authority police officer William Ross stated,

"I was trying to observe the plane, as closely as I could, for smoke, fire or any type of vapour trail. There was none. The landing gear was up and the doors that house the gear were closed. The plane was, as I stated, travelling south and moving at a high rate of speed. It was flying level and straight. The pilot did not appear to be fighting to maintain control of the aircraft".[33]

Lieutenant William Walsh of the FDNY Wikipedia (who appears in the documentary film 9/11) also witnessed the aircraft:

"We were under the impression – he looked like he was going down, but we didn't hear any mechanical difficulty. We couldn't figure out why an American Airlines plane would be so low in downtown Manhattan. We sort of expected him to veer off and go into the Hudson. But he just rose a little bit, his altitude, leveled off, and he was headed straight for the Trade Center. So just before he got to the Trade Center it seemed as though he gained power. We were just watching this airplane on target for the World Trade Center. All of a sudden, boom! He disappears into the Trade Center."[34]


Firstplane

Jules Naudet filmed the impact of Flight 11 as it crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Center.

pt 2Edit

The damage caused to the North Tower destroyed any means of escape from above the impact zone. All stairwells and elevators from the 92nd floor up were rendered impassable,[35] trapping 1,344 people[who?].[35] According to the Commission Report, hundreds were killed instantly by the impact; the rest were trapped and died from the subsequent fire and smoke, the eventual collapse or in some cases, after jumping or falling from the building.[36] Elevator shafts channeled burning jet fuel through the building.[37] At least one elevator shaft carried burning fuel downward, exploding on the 77th floor, the 22nd floor, and at street level on the West Side Lobby.[38]

Jules Naudet, a French cameraman, and Pavel Hlava, a Czech immigrant, filmed the crash.[39][40] A webcam set up by Wolfgang Staehle at an art exhibit in Brooklyn to take images of Lower Manhattan every four seconds also captured images of Flight 11 crashing into the North Tower.[41] A WNYW newscamera left rolling on the ground also captured audio of the crash and video of the immediate aftermath.[42]

News organizations at first reported an explosion or incident at the World Trade Center. CNN broke into a commercial at 08:49 with the headline that read "World Trade Center Disaster". Carol Lin, who was the first anchor to break the news of the attacks, said:

Yeah. This just in. You are looking at obviously a very disturbing live shot there. That is the World Trade Center, and we have unconfirmed reports this morning that a plane has crashed into one of the towers of the World Trade Center. CNN Center right now is just beginning to work on this story, obviously calling our sources and trying to figure out exactly what happened, but clearly something relatively devastating happening this morning there on the south end of the island of Manhattan. That is once again, a picture of one of the towers of the World Trade Center."[43]


Later, in an on-air phone call from his office at the CNN New York bureau, CNN vice-president of finance Sean Murtagh reported that a large passenger commercial jet had hit the World Trade Center.[43] Eventually, all other television networks interrupted regular broadcasting with news of the crash. Initial news reports speculated that the crash had been an accident until United Airlines Flight 175, another Los Angeles bound Boeing 767 Wikipedia crashed into the South Tower at about 09:03.

AftermathEdit

File:Landing gear aa11.jpg

After the crash, the North Tower burned and collapsed. Although the impact itself caused extensive structural damage, the long-lasting fire ignited by jet fuel was blamed for the structural failure of the tower.[45][46][47] In addition to the aircraft and building occupants, hundreds of rescue workers[who?] also died when the tower collapsed.[48] Cantor Fitzgerald L.P., an investment bank on floors 101–105 of the World Trade Center One, lost 658 employees[who?], considerably more than any other employer.[49]

pt 2Edit

Rescue workers at the World Trade Center site began to discover body fragments from Flight 11 victims within days of the attack. Some workers found bodies strapped to airplane seats and discovered the body of a flight attendant with her hands bound, suggesting the hijackers may have used plastic handcuffs.[50][51] Within a year, medical examiners[who?] had identified the remains of 33 victims[who?] who had been on board Flight 11.[52] They identified two other Flight 11 victims, including the lead flight attendant Karen Martin, and passenger Douglas Stone after body fragments were discovered near Ground Zero in 2006.[53][54] In April 2007, examiners[who?] using newer DNA technology identified another Flight 11 victim[who?].[55] The remains of two hijackers[who?], potentially from Flight 11, were also identified and removed from Memorial Park in Manhattan.[56] The remains of the other hijackers have not been identified and are buried with other unidentified remains at this park.[57]

Suqami's passport survived the crash and landed on the street below. The passport, soaked in jet fuel, was picked up from the street by a passerby who gave it to a New York City Police Department (NYPD) detective, Yuk H. Chin, shortly before the South Tower collapsed.[58][59] Investigators retrieved Mohamed Atta's luggage that was not loaded onto the flight. In Atta's luggage they found al-Omari's passport and driver's license, a videocassette for a Boeing 757 flight simulator, a folding knife, and pepper spray.[13] In a recording found months later in Afghanistan, al Qaeda's leader, Osama bin Laden, took credit for the attack. The attack on the World Trade Center exceeded even bin Laden's expectations: he had expected only the floors above the plane strikes to collapse.[60] The flight recorders for Flight 11 and Flight 175 were never found.[61]

After the attacks, the flight number for flights on the same route at the same takeoff time was changed to American Airlines Flight 25, and a Boeing 757 Wikipedia and later a Boeing 737 Wikipedia which is currently used instead of a Boeing 767 Wikipedia. An American flag is flown on the jet bridge of gate B32 from which Flight 11 departed Logan Airport.[62]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Bernstein,Richard (2002-09-10). "On Path to the U.S. Skies, Plot Leader Met bin Laden". New York Times. 
  2. Fouda,Yosri (2006-10-01). "Chilling message of the 9/11 plots". Sunday Times (London). 
  3. "Brief of Accident". National Transportation Safety Board. 2006-03-07. Retrieved 2007-05-05. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Staff Report - "We Have Some Planes": The Four Flights — a Chronology" (PDF). National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. Archived from the original on 2006-04-22. Retrieved 2008-05-25. 
  5. "American Airlines Flight 11". CNN. 2001. Archived from the original on 2001-09-17. Retrieved 2008-05-22.  [dead link]
  6. Lagos,Marisa; Walsh, Diana (2006-09-11). "S.F. firefighters, others honor peers who died on 9/11". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  7. "American Airlines Flight 11 - Victims". CNN. Archived from the original on 2001-09-17. Retrieved 2008-06-06.  [dead link]
  8. "Interview with Seth MacFarlane". TVShowsonDVD.com. Retrieved 2007-09-01. 
  9. 9/11 Commission Report,26 July 2004,[[9/11 Commission Report Page {{{1}}}|Page {{{1}}}]]
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 "'We Have Some Planes'". National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. July 2004. Retrieved 2008-05-25. 
  11. Kehaulani Goo, Sara (2005-02-13). "Papers Offer New Clues On 9/11 Hijackers' Travel". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-05-22. 
  12. Dorman, Michael (2006-04-17). "Unraveling 9-11 was in the bags". Newsday. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Excerpts From Statement by Sept. 11 Commission Staff". The New York Times. 2004-06-17. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 "Investigating 9-11 -- The doomed flights". San Francisco Chronicle. 2004-07-23. Archived from the original on 2005-07-12. Retrieved 2008-05-22. 
  15. "The Aviation Security System and the 9/11 Attacks - Staff Statement No. 3" (PDF). National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. Retrieved 2008-05-25. 
  16. "9/11 Investigation (PENTTBOM)". Federal Bureau of Investigation. United States Department of Justice. September 2001. Archived from the original on 2004-09-29. Retrieved 2008-05-22. 
  17. New York Times, Oct. 16, 2001, Retrieved Dec. 3, 2009.
  18. Johnson,Glen (2001-11-23). "Probe reconstructs horror, calculated attacks on planes". Boston Globe. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 19.8 "Flight Path Study - American Airlines Flight 11" (PDF). National Transportation Safety Board. 2002-02-19. Archived from the original on 2006-10-07. Retrieved 2008-05-25. 
  20. "Transcript". Bill Moyers Journal. Public Broadcasting Service. 2007-09-14. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  21. "Excerpt: A travel day like any other — until some passengers left their seats". The Seattle Times. 2004-07-23. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  22. "Inside the failed Air Force scramble to prevent the Sept. 11 attacks". MSNBC. 2004-06-28. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  23. Woolley,Scott (2007-04-23). "Video Prophet". Forbes. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  24. [New Yorker, 29, Oct. 29, 2001, Seymour M. Hersh, "Watching the Warheads: The Risks to Pakistans Nuclear Arsenal"].
  25. Sisk, Richard; El-Faizy, Monique (2004-07-24). "First Victim Died A Hero On Flt. 11 Ex-Israeli commando tried to halt unfolding hijacking". Daily News. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  26. Eggen,Dan (2002-03-02). "Airports Screened Nine of Sept. 11 Hijackers, Officials Say; Kin of Victims Call for Inquiry into Revelation". The Washington Post. 
  27. 27.0 27.1 Sullivan, Laura (2004-01-28). "9/11 victim calmly describes hijack on haunting tape". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2008-05-22. 
  28. United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia (2006-03-07). "USA v. Zacarias Moussaoui - Trial Testimony by David Raskin". United States Department of Justice. Archived from the original on 2007-05-27. Retrieved 2008-05-22. 
  29. 29.0 29.1 "9/11 recordings chronicle confusion, delay". CNN. 2004-06-17. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  30. Ellison,Michael (2001-10-17). "'We have planes. Stay quiet' - Then silence". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2008-05-26. 
  31. NEADS/NORAD (the military) was notified about Flight 11 at 8:37 a.m., nine minutes before the crash. This nine minutes was the amount of time available to them to respond to the situation. They were notified about United Airlines Flight 175 at 9:03 a.m., the same time it crashed into the South Tower. They were notified about American Airlines Flight 77 three minutes before it crashed into the Pentagon. The military was notified about United Airlines Flight 93 at 10:07 a.m. (four minutes after it crashed in Pennsylvania). The nine minutes with Flight 11 was the most time they had to do something in response. Source: Kean, Thomas H.; Hamilton, Lee H.. "The Story in the Sky". Without Precedent. Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 263. 
  32. "NIST NCSTAR1-5: Reconstruction of the Fires in the World Trade Center Towers" (PDF). National Institute of Standards and Technology. October 2005. Retrieved 2008-05-25. 
  33. Ross,William (2002-03-06). "Memorandum: World Trade Center Disaster" (PDF). Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Wikipedia / The Memory Hole. Archived from the original on 2004-07-02.  [dead link]
  34. "World Trade Center Task Force Interview - Lieutenant William Walsh" (PDF). New York Times. 2002-01-11. Retrieved 2008-05-28. 
  35. 35.0 35.1 Dwyer,Jim; Lipton, Eric et al. (2002-05-26). "102 Minutes: Last Words at the Trade Center; Fighting to Live as the Towers Die". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  36. "Heroism and Horror". National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. 2004. Retrieved 2007-08-18. 
  37. Cauchon,Dennis; Moore,Martha T. (2002-09-04). "Elevators were disaster within disaster". USA Today. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  38. "Zero Hour". Producers: Colette Beaudry and Michael Cascio. [[Inside 9/11|Inside 9/11]]. National Geographic Channel. 2005-09-23.
  39. Carter,Bill (2002-02-06). "CBS to Broadcast Videotape Shot Inside Towers During Trade Center Attack". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  40. Glanz,James (2003-09-07). "A Rare View of 9/11, Overlooked". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  41. Staehle, Wolfgang. "Rare Scenes from 9/11". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 2007-06-12. 
  42. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cVEmAWaKoYQ
  43. 43.0 43.1 "CNN Breaking News Terrorist Attack on United States". CNN. 2001-09-11. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  44. Hamburger, Ronald; Baker, William et al. (May 2002). "World Trade Center Building Performance Study" (PDF). FEMA Wikipedia (Federal Emergency Management Agency Wikipedia) 403: 19. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  45. National Construction Safety Team (September 2005). "Executive Summary" (PDF). Final Report on the Collapse of the World Trade Center Towers. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  46. Miller,Bill (2001-05-01). "Report Assesses Trade Center's Collapse". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2012-05-24. Retrieved 2008-06-12. 
  47. Williams,Timothy (2005-04-05). "Report on Trade Center Collapses Emphasizes Damage to Fireproofing". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-06-12. 
  48. "Police back on day-to-day beat after 9/11 nightmare". CNN. 2002-07-21. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  49. "Cantor rebuilds after 9/11 losses". BBC News website. 2006-09-04. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  50. Sachs,Susan (2001-09-15). "After the Attacks: The Trade Center; Heart-Rending Discoveries as Digging Continues in Lower Manhattan". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  51. Gardiner, Sean; Rayman, Graham (2001-09-15). "Hijackers May Have Used Handcuffs". AM New York. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  52. O'Shaughnessy,Patrice (2002-09-11). "More Than Half Of Victims Id'd". Daily News. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  53. Brubaker,Bill (2006-11-02). "Remains of Three 9/11 Victims Identified". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  54. Holusha,John (2006-11-02). "3 Trade Center Victims Identified by DNA". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  55. Gaskell,Stephanie (2007-04-11). "9/11 Plane Passenger Id'd". New York Post. Archived from the original on 2012-05-27. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  56. Kelley,Tina (2003-03-01). "Officials Identify Remains of Two Hijackers Through DNA". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  57. Standora,Leo (2003-03-01). "ID Remains OF 2 WTC Hijackers". Daily News. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  58. "Chronology" (PDF). Monograph on 9/11 and Terrorist Travel. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. pp. 40. Retrieved 2008-05-25. 
  59. "Hijackers Timeline" (PDF). Federal Bureau of Investigation Wikipedia / 911myths.com. Archived from the original on 2008-05-30. Retrieved 2008-05-26. 
  60. "Transcript of Bin Laden videotape". National Public Radio. 2001-12-13. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  61. "9-11 Commission Report - Notes". National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. 2004. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  62. "Logan Airport bears memory of its fateful role with silence". Boston Globe. 2002-09-12. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 

External linksEdit

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